BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor of bone is a locally aggressive, rarely metastasizing tumor that accounts for about 5% of bone tumors and generally occurs in patients between 20 and 45 years old. A driver mutation in the histone 3.3 (H3.3) gene H3F3A has been identified in as many as 96% of giant cell tumors of bone. The immunohistochemical expression of H3F3A H3.3 G34 expression was found in 97.8% of cases. In the present study, we describe our series of cases of giant cell tumor of bone in pediatric patients <16 years old.
METHODS: All cases of giant cell tumor of bone in pediatric patients <16 years old treated in our institute between 1982 and 2018 were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry and/or molecular analysis for H3F3A gene mutations was performed to confirm the diagnosis. A group of aneurysmal bone cysts in patients <16 years old was used as a control group.
RESULTS: Fifteen cases were retrieved. A pronounced female predominance (93%) was observed. A pure metaphyseal central location occurs in 2 skeletally immature patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Giant cell tumor of bone should be distinguished from its mimickers due to differences in prognosis and treatment. Immunohistochemical and molecular detection of H3F3A gene mutation represents a reliable diagnostic tool.
- giant cell tumor