Background: Considering the epidemiological point of view, it is difficult to compare the literature regarding non-occupational cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), because of several influencing factors. We analysed the results of an epidemiological study that was taken up by the GIRDCA (Gruppo Italiano Ricerca Dermatiti da Contatto ed Ambientali) and lasted 15 years. It was aimed to provide the contact dermatitis (CD) influence rate. In Italy, 16 Research Units took part in this experience. In accordance with required parameters, the main clinical anamnestic data were computerized and then statistically analysed. The same occurred to the data resulting from allergological assessments concerning 62,762 patients. These were patch tested, between 1984 and 1998, with the standard series haptens suggested by the GIRDCA (and modified during the years) and with any other additional ones. Objectives: Referring to the period of time examined, our research aimed to assess: 1) the ACD, non-occupational ACD, and cosmetic non-occupational ACD frequency; 2) the cosmetic ACD percentage on non-occupational ACD (and its trend), the percentage of Italian and European people affected by non-occupational ACD; 3) the percentage of cosmetic components (and its trend) considered responsible for cosmetic non-occupational ACD; 4) the percentage of allergens that have been considered relevant from a clinical point of view in non-occupational cosmetic ACD. Results: There were 38,005 non-occupational ACD in all and 8,130 (27.3%) of them were caused by cosmetics, with increasing trend. A reliable appraisal, on the basis of literature data and the GIRDCA research, suggests that cosmetics non-occupational ACD affects or affected approximately 475,000 people in Italy and approximately 3 million people in the European Union. The components more frequently pointed out as responsible for cosmetic ACD are, in order of importance, perfumes, hair dyes, excipients, and preservatives. Significant trends regarded perfumes (increasing since 1993), excipients (increasing since 1993), and preservatives (increasing for all the examined period). In order of importance, perfume mix (not significant trend), Peru balsam (not significant trend), Kathon CG® (with significant trend to decrease), propolis (with significant trend to decrease), p-phenylendiamine (significant trend to increase since 1985), can be considered as the allergens with the highest percentage of positive reactions. Conclusions: The research carried out by the GIRDCA supplies data regarding a wide record of cases that were studied long-term. The conclusions derived from the study of cosmetic ACD can help prevention. The knowledge of the components and allergens that cause cosmetic non-occupational ACD is important for the dermatologist, in order to suggest the patient alternative cosmetics without substances that can cause reactions, and for cosmetologist chemists, in order to formulate safer cosmetics.
|Translated title of the contribution||GIRDCA (Gruppo Italiano Ricerca Dermatiti da Contatto e Ambientali) epidemiological survey on contact dermatitis in Italy (1984-1998): Data on the aetiology of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Annali Italiani di Dermatologia Allergologica Clinica e Sperimentale|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|
ASJC Scopus subject areas