As the majority of gliomas arise through malignant transformation of astrocytes, we aimed at investigating the interaction between malignant glioma cells and astrocytes in a co-culture experimental model. For this purpose we analyzed the expression of genes and proteins involved in tumor promotion and invasion, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), and connexin 43 (CX43). Co-cultures of human neural stem cell-derived astrocytes and U87 MG astrocytoma cells were performed in a transwell system. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, and protein analysis was performed by Western blotting, SDS-zymography, and immunofluorescence. GFAP tended to be up-regulated in astrocytes co-cultivated with U87, suggesting a reactive response induced by glioma cells. CX43 mRNA tended to be down- regulated in co-cultured astrocytes, as well as the non-phosphorylated isoform at the protein level. MMP-2 mRNA tended to be up-regulated, and MMP-2 protein levels were significantly increased in astrocytes co-cultivated with U87. TIMP-2 and SPARC mRNA decreased in astrocytes co-cultivated with U87, showing lower expression in glioma cells. By contrast, SPARC protein expression was strongly induced in supernatants of co-cultured astrocytes. TGF-β1 was not modified. Our results suggest that U87 cells elicit phenotype modifications in the neighbouring resident astrocytes very likely mediated by soluble factors. Glioma/ astrocyte interaction could possibly trigger an astrocyte phenotype modification consistent with a malignant transformation, and favouring a more permissive environment for glioma cells invasion.
- Connexin 43
- Glial fibrillary acidic protein
- Matrix metalloproteinase-2
- Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research