Global Disorders of Sex Development Update since 2006: Perceptions, Approach and Care

Peter A Lee, Anna Nordenström, Christopher P Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Richard Auchus, Arlene Baratz, Katharine Baratz Dalke, Lih-Mei Liao, Karen Lin-Su, Leendert H J Looijenga, Tom Mazur, Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg, Pierre D E Mouriquand, Charmian A Quigley, David E Sandberg, Eric Vilain, Selma Witchel, Global DSD Update Consortium, Waifro Rigamonti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The goal of this update regarding the diagnosis and care of persons with disorders of sex development (DSDs) is to address changes in the clinical approach since the 2005 Consensus Conference, since knowledge and viewpoints change. An effort was made to include representatives from a broad perspective including support and advocacy groups. The goal of patient care is focused upon the best possible quality of life (QoL). The field of DSD is continuously developing. An update on the clinical evaluation of infants and older individuals with ambiguous genitalia including perceptions regarding male or female assignment is discussed. Topics include biochemical and genetic assessment, the risk of germ cell tumor development, approaches to psychosocial and psychosexual well-being and an update on support groups. Open and on-going communication with patients and parents must involve full disclosure, with the recognition that, while DSD conditions are life-long, enhancement of the best possible outcome improves QoL. The evolution of diagnosis and care continues, while it is still impossible to predict gender development in an individual case with certainty. Such decisions and decisions regarding surgery during infancy that alters external genital anatomy or removes germ cells continue to carry risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-80
Number of pages23
JournalHormone Research in Paediatrics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Disorders of Sex Development
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Quality of Life
  • Sexual Development
  • Journal Article
  • Review

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Global Disorders of Sex Development Update since 2006: Perceptions, Approach and Care'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Lee, P. A., Nordenström, A., Houk, C. P., Ahmed, S. F., Auchus, R., Baratz, A., Baratz Dalke, K., Liao, L-M., Lin-Su, K., Looijenga, L. H. J., Mazur, T., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Mouriquand, P. D. E., Quigley, C. A., Sandberg, D. E., Vilain, E., Witchel, S., Global DSD Update Consortium, & Rigamonti, W. (2016). Global Disorders of Sex Development Update since 2006: Perceptions, Approach and Care. Hormone Research in Paediatrics, 85(3), 158-80.