Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, Ashkan Afshin, Lily Alexander, H. Ross Anderson, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Stan Biryukov, Michael Brauer, Richard Burnett, Kelly Cercy, Fiona J. Charlson, Aaron Cohen, Lalit Dandona, Kara Estep, Alize J. Ferrari, Joseph J. Frostad, Nancy Fullman, Peter Gething, William W. Godwin, Max Griswold, Yohannes KinfuHmwe Kyu, Heidi Larson, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S. Lim, Patrick Y. Liu, Alan D. Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Laurie Marczak, George Mensah, Ali H. Mokdad, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Bruce C. Neal, Marissa B. Reitsma, Gregory A. Roth, Joshua A. Salomon, Patrick Sur, Theo Vos, Joseph Wagner, Haidong Wang, Yi Zhao, Maigeng Zhou, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Kaja M. Abbas, Foad Abd-Allah, Abdishakur M. Abdulle, Semaw F. Abera, Biju Abraham, Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Gebre Yitayih Abyu, Akindele Olupelumi Adebiyi, Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji, Zanfina Ademi, Arsène K. Adou, Josef C. Adsuar, Emilie E. Agardh, Arnav Agarwal, Anurag Agrawal, Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri, Oluremi N. Ajala, Tomi F. Akinyemiju, Ziyad Al-Aly, Khurshid Alam, Noore K M Alam, Saleh Fahed S Aldhahri, Robert William Aldridge, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Raghib Ali, Ala'a Alkerwi, François Alla, Peter Allebeck, Ubai Alsharif, Khalid A. Altirkawi, Elena Alvarez Martin, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Azmeraw T. Amare, Alemayehu Amberbir, Adeladza Kofi Amegah, Heresh Amini, Walid Ammar, Stephen Marc Amrock, Hjalte H. Andersen, Benjamin O. Anderson, Carl Abelardo T Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Johan Ärnlöv, Al Artaman, Hamid Asayesh, Rana J. Asghar, Reza Assadi, Suleman Atique, Euripide Frinel G Arthur Avokpaho, Ashish Awasthi, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Peter Azzopardi, Umar Bacha, Alaa Badawi, Maria C. Bahit, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Aleksandra Barac, Ryan M. Barber, Suzanne L. Barker-Collo, Till Bärnighausen, Simon Barquera, Lars Barregard, Lope H. Barrero, Sanjay Basu, Carolina Batis, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Justin Beardsley, Neeraj Bedi, Ettore Beghi, Michelle L. Bell, Aminu K. Bello, Derrick A. Bennett, Isabela M. Bensenor, Adugnaw Berhane, Eduardo Bernabe, Balem Demtsu Betsu, Addisu Shunu Beyene, Neeraj Bhala, Anil Bhansali, Samir Bhatt, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Boris Bikbov, Donal Bisanzio, Espen Bjertness, Jed D. Blore, Rohan Borschmann, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert R. Bourne, Michael Brainin, Alexandra Bražinová, Nicholas J K Breitborde, Hermann Brenner, David M. Broday, Traolach S. Brugha, Bert Brunekreef, Zahid A. Butt, Leah E. Cahill, Bianca Calabria, Ismael R. Campos-Nonato, Rosario Cardenas, David O. Carpenter, Daniel Casey, Carlos A. Castaneda-Orjuela, Jacqueline Castillo Rivas, Ruben Estanislao Castro, Ferran Catala-Lopez, Jung Chen Chang, Peggy P. Chiang, Mirriam Chibalabala, Odgerel Chimed-Ochir, Vesper Hichilombwe Chisumpa, Abdulaal A. Chitheer, Jee Young Jasmine Choi, Hanne Christensen, Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher, Liliana G. Ciobanu, Matthew M. Coates, Samantha M. Colquhoun, Leslie T. Cooper, Kimberly Cooperrider, Leslie Cornaby, Monica Cortinovis, John A. Crump, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, Albertino Damasceno, Rakhi Dandona, Sarah C. Darby, Paul I. Dargan, José das Neves, Adrian C. Davis, Kairat Davletov, E. Filipa De Castro, Vanessa De La Cruz-Gongora, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Liana C. Del Gobbo, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Robert P. Dellavalle, Amare Deribew, Don C Des Jarlais, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Preet K. Dhillon, Cesar Diaz-Torne, Daniel J. Dicker, Eric L. Ding, E. Ray Dorsey, Kerrie E. Doyle, Tim R. Driscoll, Leilei Duan, Manisha Dubey, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Iqbal Elyazar, Aman Yesuf Endries, Sergey P. Ermakov, Holly Erskine, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Saman Fahimi, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Talha A. Farid, Carla Sofia e Sa Farinha, Andre Faro, Maryam S. Farvid, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery L. Feigin, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Jefferson G. Fernandes, Florian Fischer, Joseph Robert Ander Fitchett, Thomas Fleming, Nataliya Foigt, Kyle J. Foreman, F. Gerry R Fowkes, Richard C. Franklin, Thomas Fürst, Neal D. Futran, Emmanuela Gakidou, Alberto L. García-Basteiro, Tsegaye Tsewelde Gebrehiwot, Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Bradford D. Gessner, Ababi Zergaw Giref, Maurice Giroud, Melkamu Dedefo Gishu, Shifalika Goenka, Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Hector Gomez Dantes, Philimon Gona, Amador Goodridge, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Carolyn C. Gotay, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N. Gouda, Harish C. Gugnani, Francis Guillemin, Yuming Guo, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Reyna A. Gutierrez, Juanita A. Haagsma, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Demewoz Haile, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Yara Halasa, Randah R. Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Alexis J. Handal, G. J. Hankey, Yuantao Hao, Hilda L. Harb, Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan, J. M. Haro, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Tahir Ahmed Hassen, Rasmus Havmoeller, Ileana B. Heredia Pi, Norberto Francisco Hernández-Llanes, Pouria Heydarpour, Hans W. Hoek, H. J. Hoffman, Masako Horino, Nobuyuki Horita, H. Dean Hosgood, Damian G. Hoy, Mohamed Hsairi, Aung Soe Htet, Guoqing Hu, John J. Huang, Abdullatif Husseini, S. Hutchings, Inge Huybrechts, Kim M. Iburg, Bulat T. Idrisov, Bogdan Vasile Ileanu, Manami Inoue, Troy A. Jacobs, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Nader Jahanmehr, Mihajlo B. Jakovljevic, Henrica A. Jansen, Simerjot K. Jassal, Mehdi Javanbakht, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Sun Ha Jee, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Vivekanand Jha, Ying Jiang, Tariku Jibat, Ye Jin, Catherine O. Johnson, Jost B. Jonas, Zubair Kabir, Yogeshwar Kalkonde, Ritul Kamal, Haidong Kan, Andre Karch, Corine Kakizi Karema, Chante Karimkhani, Amir Kasaeian, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Dhruv S. Kazi, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Andrew H. Kemp, Andrew Pascal Kengne, A. Keren, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Yousef Saleh Khader, Abdur Rahman Khan, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Gulfaraz Khan, Young Ho Khang, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Sahil Khera, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer Khoja, Jagdish Khubchandani, Christian Kieling, Cho il Kim, Daniel Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Niranjan Kissoon, M. Kivipelto, Luke Knibbs, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Jacek A. Kopec, Parvaiz A. Koul, Ai Koyanagi, Michael Kravchenko, Hans Kromhout, Hans Krueger, Tiffany Ku, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Ricardo S. Kuchenbecker, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Ernst J. Kuipers, G. Anil Kumar, Gene F. Kwan, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Ratilal Lalloo, Tea Lallukka, Qing Lan, Anders Larsson, Asma Abdul Latif, Alicia E B Lawrynowicz, Janet L. Leasher, James Leigh, Janni Leung, Miriam Levi, Xiaohong Li, Yichong Li, Juan Liang, Shiwei Liu, Belinda K. Lloyd, Giancarlo Logroscino, Paulo A. Lotufo, Raimundas Lunevicius, Michael F. MacIntyre, Mahdi Mahdavi, Marek Majdan, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Wondimu Ayele Ayele Manamo, Christopher C. Mapoma, Wagner Marcenes, Randall V. Martin, Jose Martinez-Raga, Felix Masiye, Kunihiro Matsushita, Richard G. Matzopoulos, Bongani M. Mayosi, John J. McGrath, Martin McKee, Peter A. Meaney, Catalina Medina, Alem Mehari, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Alemayehu B. Mekonnen, Yohannes A. Melaku, Ziad Memish, Walter Mendoza, Gert B M Mensink, Atte Meretoja, Tuomo J. Meretoja, Yonatan Moges Mesfin, Francis Apolinary Mhimbira, Ted R. Miller, Edward J. Mills, Mojde Mirarefin, Awoke Misganaw, Charles N. Mock, Alireza Mohammadi, Shafiu Mohammed, Glen Liddell D Mola, Lorenzo Monasta, Julio C Montanêz Hernandez, Marcella Montico, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Dariush Mozaffarian, Ulrich O. Mueller, Erin C. Mullany, John Everett Mumford, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana Murthy, Jean Nachega, Aliya Naheed, Vinay Nangia, Nariman Nassiri, J. Newton, Marie Ng, Quyen Le Nguyen, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie Pete, Ole F. Norheim, Rosana E. Norman, Bo Norrving, Luke Nyakarahuka, Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, In Hwan Oh, Olanrewaju Oladimeji, Pedro R. Olivares, Helen Olsen, Bolajoko O. Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun Olusanya, John Nelson Opio, Eyal Oren, Ricardo Orozco, Alberto Ortiz, Erika Ota, Mahesh PA, Adrian Pana, Eun Kee Park, Charles D. Parry, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Tejas Patel, Angel J Paternina Caicedo, Snehal T. Patil, Scott B. Patten, George C. Patton, Neil Pearce, David M. Pereira, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, Max Petzold, Michael R. Phillips, Frederic B. Piel, Julian David Pillay, Dietrich Plass, Suzanne Polinder, Constance D. Pond, C. A. Pope, D. Pope, Svetlana Popova, Richie G. Poulton, Farshad Pourmalek, Noela M. Prasad, Mostafa Qorbani, Rynaz H S Rabiee, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mahfuzar Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Sajjad U R Rahman, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Sasa Rajsic, Murugesan Raju, Usha Ram, Saleem M. Rana, Kavitha Ranganathan, Puja Rao, Christian Aspacia Razo García, Amany H. Refaat, Colin D. Rehm, Juergen Rehm, Nikolas Reinig, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Serge Resnikoff, Antonio L. Ribeiro, Juan A. Rivera, Hirbo Shore Roba, Alina Rodriguez, Sonia Rodriguez-Ramirez, David Rojas-Rueda, Yesenia Roman, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Ambuj Roy, Muhammad Muhammad Saleh, Juan R. Sanabria, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Tania G. Sánchez-Pimienta, Logan Sandar, Damian F. Santomauro, Itamar S. Santos, Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suarez, Benn Sartorius, Maheswar Satpathy, Miloje Savic, Monika Sawhney, Josef Schmidhuber, Maria Inês Schmidt, Ione J C Schneider, Ben Schöttker, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte, David C. Schwebel, James G. Scott, S. Seedat, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Edson E. Servan-Mori, Amira Shaheen, Saeid Shahraz, Masood Ali Shaikh, Teresa Shamah Levy, Rajesh Sharma, Jun She, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Jiabin Shen, Kevin N. Sheth, Peilin Shi, Kenji Shibuya, Mika Shigematsu, Min Jeong Shin, Rahman Shiri, Kawkab Shishani, Ivy Shiue, Mark G. Shrime, Inga D. Sigfusdottir, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira, Jonathan I. Silverberg, Edgar P. Simard, Shireen Sindi, Abhishek Singh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Prashant Kumar Singh, Erica Leigh Slepak, Michael Soljak, Samir Soneji, Reed J D Sorensen, Luciano A. Sposato, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Vasiliki Stathopoulou, Nadine Steckling, Nicholas Steel, Dan J. Stein, Murray B. Stein, Heidi Stöckl, Saverio Stranges, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Bruno F. Sunguya, Soumya Swaminathan, Bryan L. Sykes, Cassandra E I Szoeke, Rafael Tabares-Seisdedos, Ken Takahashi, Roberto Tchio Talongwa, Nikhil Tandon, David Tanne, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Bineyam Taye, Hugh R. Taylor, Bemnet Amare Tedla, Worku Mekonnen Tefera, Teketo Kassaw Tegegne, Dejen Yemane Tekle, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, J. S. Thakur, Bernadette A. Thomas, Matthew Lloyd Thomas, Alan J. Thomson, Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman, Amanda G. Thrift, George D. Thurston, Taavi Tillmann, Ruoyan Tobe-Gai, Myriam Tobollik, Roman Topor-Madry, Fotis Topouzis, Jeffrey A. Towbin, Bach X. Tran, Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Abera Kenay Tura, Emin M. Tuzcu, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley N. Ukwaja, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Olalekan A. Uthman, Aaron van Donkelaar, Jim Van Os, Yuri Y. Varakin, Tommi Vasankari, J. Lennert Veerman, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, F. S. Violante, Stein Emil Vollset, Gregory R. Wagner, Stephen Waller, Jianli Wang, Linhong Wang, Yanping Wang, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G. Weintraub, Andrea Werdecker, Ronny Westerman, Harvey Whiteford, Tissa Wijeratne, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Charles D A Wolfe, Sungho Won, A. D. Woolf, Mamo Wubshet, Denis Xavier, Gelin Xu, Ajit Kumar Yadav, Bereket Yakob, Ayalnesh Zemene Yalew, Yuichiro Yano, Mehdi Yaseri, Pengpeng Ye, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok Jun Yoon, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Zoubida Zaidi, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Jun Zhu, Ben Zipkin, Sanjay Zodpey, Liesl Joanna Zuhlke, Christopher J L Murray

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