Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency: Ketogenic diet in three patients with atypical phenotype

Pierangelo Veggiotti, Federica Teutonico, Enrico Alfei, Nardo Nardocci, Giovanna Zorzi, Anna Tagliabue, Valentina De Giorgis, Umberto Balottin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Glucose transporter type I deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS) is an inborn error of glucose transport characterized by seizures, developmental delay, spasticity, acquired microcephaly and ataxia. Diagnosis is based on the finding of low cerebrospinal fluid glucose, in the absence of hypoglycemia, and identification of GLUT-1 gene mutation on chromosome 1. The classic phenotype is a severe form of early onset epileptic encephalopathy, but patient with different clinical presentation have been reported expanding the clinical spectrum. In particular, many patients show a prominent movement disorder other than epilepsy. It is known that this disease represents a treatable condition and ketogenic diet (KD) is the elective treatment in GLUT-1 DS patients. We report on KD in three unrelated Italian GLUT-1 DS female patients, diagnosed in early adulthood, all presenting with an atypical phenotype. Preliminary results seem to demonstrate efficacy of KD on paroxysmal movement disorder while positive effect on cognitive impairment result less evident.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)404-408
Number of pages5
JournalBrain and Development
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2010


  • EEG and Seizures
  • GLUT-1
  • GLUT-1 DS
  • Ketogenic diet
  • Paroxysmal movement disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience


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