Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus During COVID-19 Quarantine and the Role of In-Home Physical Activity

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Background: To limit the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), governments have ordered a series of restrictions that may affect glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), since physical activity (PA) was not allowed outside home. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated glycemic control of individuals with T1DM using hybrid closed loop (HCL) system in the period before the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Italy (February 10-23, 2020-Time 1), when movements were only reduced (February 24-March 8, 2020-Time 2) and during complete lockdown (March 9-22, 2020-Time 3). Information about regular PA (at least 3 h per week) prior and during the quarantine was collected. Results: The study included 13 individuals with a median age of 14.2 years and a good glycemic control at baseline (glucose management indicator of 7%, time in range [TIR] of 68%, time below range [TBR] of 2%). All individuals continued to show good glycemic control throughout the study period. There was an increase in TIR during the study period (+3%) and TIR was significantly higher during Time 3 (72%) than during Time 2 (66%). TBR was significantly lower during Time 3 (1%) both compared with Time 1 and Time 2 (2%). A meaningful variance in TIR at Time 3 between individuals who performed or not PA during quarantine and a significant increase in TIR between Time 2 and Time 3 in individuals both doing PA at baseline and during quarantine was found. At logistic regression, only the presence of PA during quarantine significantly predicted a TIR >70%. Conclusions: Glycemic control of T1DM in adolescents using HCL system did not worsen during the restrictions due to COVID-19 pandemics and further improved in those who continued PA during the quarantine. Maintaining regular PA in a safe home environment is an essential strategy for young individuals with T1DM during the COVID-19 crisis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)462-467
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2020


  • COVID-19
  • Glycemic control
  • Hybrid closed loop
  • Physical activity
  • Time in range

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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