Recently, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has being identified as an ubiquitous serine-threonine protein kinase that participates in a multitude of cellular processes and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSK-3β inhibition on the degree of arthritis caused by type II collagen (CII) in the mouse (collagen-induced arthritis; CIA). Mice developed erosive hind paw arthritis when immunized with CII in an emulsion in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The incidence of CIA was 100% by day 28 in the CII-challenged mice and the severity of CIA progressed over a 35-day period with radiographic evaluation revealing focal resorption of bone. The histopathology of CIA included erosion of the cartilage at the joint margins. Treatment of mice with the GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg/day i.p.) starting at the onset of arthritis (day 25) ameliorated the clinical signs at days 26-35 and improved histological status in the joint and paw. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) revealed a positive staining in inflamed joints from mice subjected to CIA. The degree of staining for nitrotyrosine, PAR, iNOS, and COX-2 was significantly reduced in CII-challenged mice treated with the GSK-3β inhibitor. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the joint tissue levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2 were also significantly reduced by GSK-3β inhibition. These data demonstrate that GSK-3β inhibition exerts an anti-inflammatory effect during chronic inflammation and is able to ameliorate the tissue damage associated with CIA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy