Italy is one of the European Countries with the highest level of antimicrobial consumption, both in the community and in hospital settings, and with the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. In 2015, the Project "Good practices for the surveillance and control of antimicrobial resistance" was funded by the Italian National Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM): the aim was to promote integrated actions at national level to control antimicrobial resistance, favouring the transfer of existing good practices. The principal objectives of the project were: to describe the Italian scenario of good practices based on literature review; to improve the capacity of surveillance, through achieving consensus on a core set of indicators, including paediatrics, and through the strengthening of the national surveillance system of antimicrobial resistance coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health; to define tools useful for priority setting; to evaluate the efficacy of intervention programme aimed at promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics among children for upper respiratory tract infections in the community; to set up training programmes on the prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. Seven regions were enrolled in the project (Emilia-Romagna with the role of programme coordinator, Campania, Calabria, Lazio, Lombardy, Piedmont, Tuscany) and the Italian National Health Institute. The project allowed to document: the scarce spread of control practices at national level (out of 277 studies reviewed, only 6.1% of the cases were targeted to evaluating the effectiveness of intervention programmes); a significant variability among regions both in relation to antimicrobial consumption and antimicrobial resistance prevalence, with a worrying spread in some regions of several antimicrobial resistant organisms responsible for "critical" infections with great potential health impact; the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at promoting appropriate use of antibiotics in frequent infections for children in the community, such as pharingotonsillitis and acute otitis media (35% reduction of antimicrobial consumption between 2010 and 2017 in Emilia-Romagna; an inversion of the ratio amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate); the need for new indicators to monitor antimicrobial consumption in hospital paediatric wards and of a new national system for timely identification of new antimicrobial resistance profiles; a positive evaluation of the training programme for veterinary physicians. In conclusion, the project has contributed to identify the most critical areas for antimicrobial resistance control and to select appropriate solutions, potentially transferable to the national level.