Grading the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: An evidence-based proposal

G. Rindi, C. Klersy, F. Inzani, G. Fellegara, L. Ampollini, A. Ardizzoni, N. Campanini, P. Carbognani, T. M. De Pas, D. Galetta, P. L. Granone, L. Righi, M. Rusca, L. Spaggiari, M. Tiseo, G. Viale, M. Volante, M. Papotti, G. Pelosi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Lung neuroendocrine tumors are catalogued in four categories by the World Health Organization (WHO 2004) classification. Its reproducibility and prognostic efficacy was disputed. The WHO 2010 classification of digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms is based on Ki67 proliferation assessment and proved prognostically effective. This study aims at comparing these two classifications and at defining a prognostic grading system for lung neuroendocrine tumors. The study included 399 patients who underwent surgery and with at least 1 year follow-up between 1989 and 2011. Data on 21 variables were collected, and performance of grading systems and their components was compared by Cox regression and multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. At Cox analysis, WHO 2004 stratified patients into three major groups with statistically significant survival difference (typical carcinoid vs atypical carcinoid (AC), P=0.021; AC vs large-cell/small-cell lung neuroendocrine carcinomas, P2-47, G3 >47; G1 vs G2, P≤0.001; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001), and presence of necrosis (G1 absent, G2 10% of sample; G1 vs G2, P≤0.001; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001) at uni and multivariable analyses. The combination of these three variables resulted in a simple and effective grading system. A three-tiers grading system based on Ki67 index, mitotic count, and necrosis with cutoffs specifically generated for lung neuroendocrine tumors is prognostically effective and accurate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalEndocrine-Related Cancer
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Rindi, G., Klersy, C., Inzani, F., Fellegara, G., Ampollini, L., Ardizzoni, A., Campanini, N., Carbognani, P., De Pas, T. M., Galetta, D., Granone, P. L., Righi, L., Rusca, M., Spaggiari, L., Tiseo, M., Viale, G., Volante, M., Papotti, M., & Pelosi, G. (2014). Grading the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: An evidence-based proposal. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 21(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-13-0246