Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are powerful immunomodulatory cells that in mice play a role in infectious and inflammatory disorders, including acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Their relevance in clinical acute GVHD is poorly known. We analyzed whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration, used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells, affected the frequency of MDSCs in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts of 60 unrelated donors. In addition, we evaluated whether the MDSC content in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts affected the occurrence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Systemic treatment with G-CSF induces an expansion of myeloid cells displaying the phenotype of monocytic MDSCs (Linlow/negHLA-DR-CD11b+CD33+CD14+) with the ability to suppress alloreactive T cells invitro, therefore meeting the definition of MDSCs. Monocytic MDSC dose was the only graft parameter to predict acute GVHD. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD at 180days after transplantation for recipients receiving monocytic MDSC doses below and above the median was 63% and 22%, respectively (P=.02). The number of monocytic MDSCs infused did not impact the relapse rate or the transplant-related mortality rate (P>.05). Although further prospective studies involving larger sample size are needed to validate the exact monocytic MDSC graft dose that protects from acute GVHD, our results strongly suggest the modulation of G-CSF might be used to affect monocytic MDSCs graft cell doses for prevention of acute GVHD.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Graft-versus-host disease
- Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization
- Myeloid-derived suppressor cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas