Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor activity in cerebrospinal fluid

A. Leonardi, S. Penco, C. Gramigni, C. Bason, G. Ribizzi, P. Gazzola, G. L. Mancardi, G. Bianchi-Scarrà, M. Abbruzzese, Cecilia Garrè

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives - The purpose of this study was to analyse the presence of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in human cerebrospinal fluid (SF) of patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) in comparison with non-inflammatory neurological diseases. Material and methods - All SFs were collected from 59 patients for diagnostic purpose. The presence of GM-CSF was revealed by measuring its activity and by immunoassay. The data obtained were statistically evaluated. Results - We found that GM- CSF is constitutively present in human SF; this presence was confirmed by its stimulating activity of colony-forming-unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) production. No significant changes of the GM-CSF concentration in the SFs were observed among different neurological disorders (degenerative or vascular) and MS. Conclusion - Our data suggest that GM-CSF is a constitutive component of human SF, relatively uninfluenced by the different morbid conditions of the nervous system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-277
Number of pages4
JournalActa Neurologica Scandinavica
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1999


  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Cytokines
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
  • Multiple sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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