Rationale: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis affecting small- and medium-sized blood vessels, mostly involving lung and kidney. Patient concerns: We report the case of a 33-year-old man that presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by alveolar hemorrhage. Diagnoses: Aggressive GPA presenting with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and multiorgan involvement. Inteventions: Immunosuppressive therapy, plasma exchange, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Outcomes: Relapse occurred very early, despite immunosuppressive treatment, with a rare involvement of genital system (epididymitis) and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis difficult to treat. Lessons: GPA is a challenging, multifaceted disease that can require aggressive supportive therapy and is associated with a high rate of relapse that may present with uncommon site of involvement.
- Case report
- Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage
- Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
ASJC Scopus subject areas