The clinical challenge on surface engineering of medical devices to prevent microorganisms adhesion and biofilm formation, has become an essential aspect for medical implants. Antibacterial properties of Graphene Oxide (GO) have been demonstrated across a broad spectrum of bacteria, and the different mechanisms of action with which this nanomaterial interacts with the microbial surface have been elucidated in detail. Innovative protective coatings based on graphene film and hydrogel could represent an innovative solution for the prevention of nosocomial pathogens colonization on implantable device. This brief review mainly focuses on the applications of graphene in nanomedicine with a particular deepening on the antibacterial properties of GO and GO-based nanomaterials. In order to evaluate the possible future applications of GO as an anti-biofilm coating material for medical devices, studies on the ability of graphene coated surface to prevent microbial adhesion are also discussed. A concise review on in vitro toxicity and in vivo safety is also presented.