GRIA3 missense mutation is cause of an x-linked developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

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Purpose: GRIA3, encoding subunit 3 of glutamate ionotropic AMPA receptor, is associated with X-linked intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic features, and non-syndromic epilepsy. We aimed to characterize electro-clinical features of patients with GRIA3 variants. Methods: We report a patient carrying a hemizygous missense variant c.2359 G > A (p.Glu787Lys) inGRIA3 gene. Following a literature search, we also reviewed clinical, electrophysiological, radiological, and genetic features of 19 patients with GRIA3 mutations. Results: This 26-month-old boy had developmental delay, early onset refractory myoclonic epilepsy, and non-convulsive refractory status epilepticus. In published reports, epilepsy was in 6 of 19 patients carrying different genotypes, though epilepsy and electroencephalogram features were not completely defined. Out of the 6 patients, one presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, two with myoclonic and clonic events (one also presented with epileptic spasms), and one with atypical absences and myoclonic jerks. Information on type of epilepsy was unavailable for 3 cases. Epilepsy onset was early in life and there was potential tendency for myoclonic/clonic events. The epilepsy was difficult to treat and prognosis is poor. Severity of ID ranged from mild to severe and was variably associated with bipolar affective disorder and autistic spectrum disorders. Other neurological features included hypotonia, asthenic body habitus with poor muscle bulk, and hyporeflexia. Conclusion: Our report expands knowledge on the electro-clinical and molecular spectrum of GRIA3 variants. Larger investigations will better define the prevalence of epilepsy, the epileptic phenotype, and syndromic features underlying GRIA3 variants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Drug resistant epilepsy
  • Genetic testing
  • Infant behavior
  • Non-convulsive status epilepticus
  • X-linked traits

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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