Data from pre-clinical and clinical studies provide evidence that colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and other growth factors (GFs) can improve stroke outcome by reducing stroke damage through their anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and by promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. This review provides a critical and up-to-date literature review on CSF use in stroke. We searched for experimental and clinical studies on haemopoietic GFs such as granulocyte CSF, erythropoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial GF, stromal cell-derived factor-1α and SCF in ischemic stroke. We also considered studies on insulin-like growth factor-1 and neurotrophins. Despite promising results from animal models, the lack of data in human beings hampers efficacy assessments of GFs on stroke outcome. We provide a comprehensive and critical view of the present knowledge about GFs and stroke, and an overview of ongoing and future prospects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1645-1687
Number of pages43
JournalJournal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011


  • EPO
  • G-CSF
  • GM-CSF
  • Growth factors
  • IGF-1
  • SCF
  • SDF-1α
  • Stroke
  • VEGF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Medicine


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