Guideline for the management of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer and/or undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

Thomas Lehrnbecher, Robert Phillips, Sarah Alexander, Frank Alvaro, Fabianne Carlesse, Brian Fisher, Hana Hakim, Maria Santolaya, Elio Castagnola, Bonnie L. Davis, L. Lee Dupuis, Faith Gibson, Andreas H. Groll, Aditya Gaur, Ajay Gupta, Rejin Kebudi, Sérgio Petrilli, William J. Steinbach, Milena Villarroel, Theoklis ZaoutisLillian Sung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To develop an evidence-based guideline for the empiric management of pediatric fever and neutropenia (FN). Methods: The International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel is a multidisciplinary and multinational group composed of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious disease as well as a patient advocate. The Panel was convened for the purpose of creating this guideline. We followed previously validated procedures for creating evidence-based guidelines. Working groups focused on initial presentation, ongoing management, and empiric antifungal therapy. Each working group developed key clinical questions, conducted systematic reviews of the published literature, and compiled evidence summaries. The Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to generate summaries, and evidence was classified as high, moderate, low, or very low based on methodologic considerations. Results: Recommendations were made related to initial presentation (risk stratification, initial evaluation, and treatment), ongoing management (modification and cessation of empiric antibiotics), and empiric antifungal treatment (risk stratification, evaluation, and treatment) of pediatric FN. For each recommendation, the strength of the recommendation and level of evidence are presented. Conclusion: This guideline represents an evidence-based approach to FN specific to children with cancer. Although some recommendations are similar to adult-based guidelines, there are key distinctions in multiple areas. Implementation will require adaptation to the local context.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4427-4438
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - Dec 10 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


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