Guidelines for the therapeutic use of botolinum toxin in movement disorders

A. Berardelli, G. Abbruzzese, L. Bertolasi, G. Cantarella, F. Carella, A. Curra, D. De Grandis, G. DeFazio, G. Galardi, P. Girlanda, P. Livrea, N. Modugno, A. Priori, G. Ruoppolo, L. Vacca, M. Manfredi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since its introduction in the early '80s the use of botulinum toxin has improved the quality of life of the patients affected by movement disorders. Toxin's neuromuscular blocking action allows a symptomatic treatment of those clinical conditions characterised by excessive muscular activity. Although the dosages used are safe and the side-effects are reversible, a correct use of botulinum toxin depends on the knowledge of its clinical pharmacology and of the anatomy of the body segments to be injected. In addition, the treatment of more complex conditions, i.e. laringeal dystonia, imposes an inter-disciplinary approach and specialised injection techiques. In this review, the Italian Study Group on Movement Disorders presents the consensus guidelines for the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in movement disorders. The main toxin types, their use and administration modalities, and the training guidelines will be presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages9
JournalItalian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • Botulinum toxin
  • Cramps
  • Dystonia
  • Movement disorders
  • Spasticity
  • Treatment
  • Tremor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Dermatology


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