Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a worldwide health concern which requires efficient therapeutic strategies. The mechanisms underlying CRC remain an essential subject of investigations in the cancer biology field. The evaluation of human microbiota can be critical in this regard, since the disruption of the normal community of gut bacteria is an important issue in the development of CRC. However, several studies have already evaluated the different aspects of the association between microbiota and CRC. The current study aimed at reviewing and summarizing most of the studies on the modifications of gut bacteria detected in stool and tissue samples of CRC cases. In addition, the importance of metabolites derived from gut bacteria, their relationship with the microbiota, and epigenetic modifications have been evaluated.