Gut Mucosal and Fecal Microbiota Profiling Combined to Intestinal Immune System in Neonates Affected by Intestinal Ischemic Injuries: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

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Abstract

Background and Purpose: Early life microbiota plays a crucial role in human health by acting as a barrier from pathogens' invasion and maintaining the intestinal immune homoeostasis. Altered fecal microbiota (FM) ecology was reported in newborns affected by intestinal ischemia. Our purpose was to describe, in these patients, the FM, the mucosal microbiota (MM) and the mucosal immunity. Methods: Fourteen newborns underwent intestinal resection because of intestinal ischemia. FM and MM were determined through targeted-metagenomics, diversity assignment and Kruskal-Wallis analyses of Operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The mucosal immune cells were analyzed through cytofluorimetry. Results and Conclusion: Based on the severity intestinal injueris we identified two groups: extensive (EII) and focal intestinal ischemia (FII). FM and MM varied in EII and FII groups, showing in the EII group the predominance of Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and the reduction of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia for both microbiota. The MM was characterized by a statistically significant reduction of Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and by a higher diversity in the EII compared to FII group. FM showed a prevalence of Proteobacteria, while the Shannon index was lower in the EII compared to FII group. An overall increment in B- and T-lymphocytes and Natural killer (NK) T-like cells was found for EII mucosal samples associated to an increment of TNF-α and INF-γ expressing cells, compared to FII group. FM and MM carry specific signatures of intestinal ischemic lesions. Further research may be crucial to address the role of specific taxa in EII, expecially with reference to inflammation grade and ischemia extension. © Copyright © 2020 Romani, Del Chierico, Chiriaco, Foligno, Reddel, Salvatori, Cifaldi, Faraci, Finocchi, Rossi, Bagolan, D'Argenio, Putignani and Fusaro.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFront. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • fecal microbiota
  • intestinal immune system
  • intestinal ischemia
  • microbial markers
  • mucosal microbiota
  • gamma interferon
  • tumor necrosis factor
  • Article
  • B lymphocyte
  • Bacteroides
  • Bacteroidetes
  • clinical article
  • controlled study
  • cytofluorometry
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • feces microflora
  • female
  • Firmicutes
  • human
  • immune system
  • intestine flora
  • intestine injury
  • intestine ischemia
  • intestine resection
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • male
  • metagenomics
  • natural killer T cell
  • newborn
  • nonhuman
  • prevalence
  • protein expression
  • Proteobacteria
  • Ruminococcaceae
  • T lymphocyte
  • Verrucomicrobia

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