BACKGROUND: This research aims to analized the clinical and diagnostic aspects of OSA in the orthodontic research field. METHODS: Through a case control study, the presence of early craniofacial modifications in a study group constituted of 13 children with long history of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (mean age 54 months, range 36-103) and in a control group constituted of 13 children with no history of snoring (mean age 60 months, range 55-67), is analyzed. Clinical neurological and orthodontic examination, cefalometrics analysis and MESAM 4 has been performed to each single child. RESULTS: Neurological clinical examination and diurnal polysomnography or nocturnal ambulatory monitoring of snoring (MESAM 4) showed that this pathology started very early in the childhood: snoring onset was 22.7 months, the apnea onset was 34.7 months. Moreover 23% of the children showed a failure to thrive. The cephalometric results revealed that OSA children showed different cranio-facial features: a maxillo-mandibular micrognathia and or retrognathia, an increment of divergency associated with an increase in the vertical development of the face and a reduced perviety of the upper airway space caused by a mechanical obstruction due to enlarged adenoids. The orthodontic clinical examination revealed that OSA patients showed posterior cross-bite, anterior open-bite and lip-incompetence. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that oral breathing, that is present in sleep apnea patients, is responsible of different cranio-facial anomalies. For this reason these features must be recognized, as soon as possible, in order to start an early treatment of this pathology.
|Number of pages||13|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|