Hand and upper limb anomalies in poland syndrome: A new proposal of classification

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Poland anomaly (PA) comprises unilateral absence or hypoplasia of the pectoralis major muscle and a variable degree of ipsilateral hand and upper limb anomalies. Various hand and upper limb anomalies classifications in PA have been previously published. In this work, a new classification of hand and upper limb anomalies in PA is proposed, on the basis of the clinical and instrumental evaluation of 175 patients. METHODS: The patients have been followed by a multidisciplinary approach, consisting in orthopaedic, surgical, and genetic evaluation and chest, upper limb, and ultrasound examination of major and minor pectoralis muscles, heart, and kidney. RESULTS: Hand and upper limb anomalies were classified in 8 groups on the basis of the clinical degree of severity and on the basis of the presence of coexisting associated anomalies. Data regarding the sex and laterality, previously reported in the medical literature, were confirmed by our analysis. Etiopathogenetic mechanisms leading to the anomaly are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed classification is derived from the observation of the widest group of patients described in the medical literature. Our proposal could help in the management of patients affected by Poland syndrome and in understanding etiological and pathologic aspects of the disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)727-731
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Volume32
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012

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Poland Syndrome
Upper Extremity
Hand
Pectoralis Muscles
Orthopedics
Thorax
Observation
Kidney

Keywords

  • hand anomalies
  • Poland anomaly
  • upper limb anomalies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

@article{14135eb49e334e1ca852557019328596,
title = "Hand and upper limb anomalies in poland syndrome: A new proposal of classification",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The Poland anomaly (PA) comprises unilateral absence or hypoplasia of the pectoralis major muscle and a variable degree of ipsilateral hand and upper limb anomalies. Various hand and upper limb anomalies classifications in PA have been previously published. In this work, a new classification of hand and upper limb anomalies in PA is proposed, on the basis of the clinical and instrumental evaluation of 175 patients. METHODS: The patients have been followed by a multidisciplinary approach, consisting in orthopaedic, surgical, and genetic evaluation and chest, upper limb, and ultrasound examination of major and minor pectoralis muscles, heart, and kidney. RESULTS: Hand and upper limb anomalies were classified in 8 groups on the basis of the clinical degree of severity and on the basis of the presence of coexisting associated anomalies. Data regarding the sex and laterality, previously reported in the medical literature, were confirmed by our analysis. Etiopathogenetic mechanisms leading to the anomaly are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed classification is derived from the observation of the widest group of patients described in the medical literature. Our proposal could help in the management of patients affected by Poland syndrome and in understanding etiological and pathologic aspects of the disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.",
keywords = "hand anomalies, Poland anomaly, upper limb anomalies",
author = "Nunzio Catena and Divizia, {Maria T.} and Calevo, {Maria G.} and Anwar Baban and Michele Torre and Roberto Ravazzolo and Margherita Lerone and S{\'e}n{\`e}s, {Filippo M.}",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1097/BPO.0b013e318269c898",
language = "English",
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T1 - Hand and upper limb anomalies in poland syndrome

T2 - A new proposal of classification

AU - Catena, Nunzio

AU - Divizia, Maria T.

AU - Calevo, Maria G.

AU - Baban, Anwar

AU - Torre, Michele

AU - Ravazzolo, Roberto

AU - Lerone, Margherita

AU - Sénès, Filippo M.

PY - 2012/10

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N2 - BACKGROUND: The Poland anomaly (PA) comprises unilateral absence or hypoplasia of the pectoralis major muscle and a variable degree of ipsilateral hand and upper limb anomalies. Various hand and upper limb anomalies classifications in PA have been previously published. In this work, a new classification of hand and upper limb anomalies in PA is proposed, on the basis of the clinical and instrumental evaluation of 175 patients. METHODS: The patients have been followed by a multidisciplinary approach, consisting in orthopaedic, surgical, and genetic evaluation and chest, upper limb, and ultrasound examination of major and minor pectoralis muscles, heart, and kidney. RESULTS: Hand and upper limb anomalies were classified in 8 groups on the basis of the clinical degree of severity and on the basis of the presence of coexisting associated anomalies. Data regarding the sex and laterality, previously reported in the medical literature, were confirmed by our analysis. Etiopathogenetic mechanisms leading to the anomaly are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed classification is derived from the observation of the widest group of patients described in the medical literature. Our proposal could help in the management of patients affected by Poland syndrome and in understanding etiological and pathologic aspects of the disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

AB - BACKGROUND: The Poland anomaly (PA) comprises unilateral absence or hypoplasia of the pectoralis major muscle and a variable degree of ipsilateral hand and upper limb anomalies. Various hand and upper limb anomalies classifications in PA have been previously published. In this work, a new classification of hand and upper limb anomalies in PA is proposed, on the basis of the clinical and instrumental evaluation of 175 patients. METHODS: The patients have been followed by a multidisciplinary approach, consisting in orthopaedic, surgical, and genetic evaluation and chest, upper limb, and ultrasound examination of major and minor pectoralis muscles, heart, and kidney. RESULTS: Hand and upper limb anomalies were classified in 8 groups on the basis of the clinical degree of severity and on the basis of the presence of coexisting associated anomalies. Data regarding the sex and laterality, previously reported in the medical literature, were confirmed by our analysis. Etiopathogenetic mechanisms leading to the anomaly are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed classification is derived from the observation of the widest group of patients described in the medical literature. Our proposal could help in the management of patients affected by Poland syndrome and in understanding etiological and pathologic aspects of the disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

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