The primary sensorimotor cortex plays a major role in the execution of movements of the contralateral side of the body. The topographic representation of different body parts within this brain region is commonly investigated through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI does not provide direct information about neuronal activity. In this study, we used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to map the representations of hand, foot, and lip movements in the primary sensorimotor cortex, and to study their neural signatures. Specifically, we assessed the event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the cortical space. We found that the performance of hand, foot, and lip movements elicited an ERD in beta and gamma frequency bands. The primary regions showing significant beta- and gamma-band ERD for hand and foot movements, respectively, were consistent with previously reported using fMRI. We observed relatively weaker ERD for lip movements, which may be explained by the fact that less fine movement control was required. Overall, our study demonstrated that ERD based on hdEEG data can support the study of motor-related neural processes, with relatively high spatial resolution. An interesting avenue may be the use of hdEEG for deeper investigations into the pathophysiology of neuromotor disorders.
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