Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative option for bone marrow failure or hematopoietic malignant diseases for Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. Although results have improved over the last decades, reaching more than 90% survival when a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donor is available, alternative HCT donors are still less reported. We compared HCT outcomes using HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMUD; n = 123) or haplo-identical donors (HDs), either using only in vivo T cell depletion (n = 33) or T cells depleted in vivo with some type of graft manipulation ex vivo (n = 59) performed for FA between 2000 and 2018. Overall survival (OS) by 24 months was 62% (53–71%) for MMUD, versus 80% (66–95%) for HDs with only in vivo T cell depletion and 60% (47–73%) for HDs with in vivo and ex vivo T cell depletion (p =.22). Event-free survival (EFS) was better for HD-transplanted FA patients with only in vivo T cell depletion 86% (73–99%) than for those transplanted from a MMUD 58% (48–68%) or those with graft manipulation 56% (42–69%) (p =.046). Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 41% (MMUD) versus 40% (HDs with no graft manipulation) versus 17% (HDs with T cell depleted graft), (p =.005). No differences were found for the other transplant related outcomes. These data suggest that HDs might be considered as an alternative option for FA patients with better EFS using unmanipulated grafts.
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