Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) from HLA haploidentical family donors is a promising therapy for high-risk hematological malignancies. In the past 15 years at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, we investigated several transplant platforms and post transplant cellular-based interventions. We showed that T cell-depleted haploidentical transplantation followed by the infusion of genetically modified donor T cells (TK007 study, Eudract-2005-003587-34) promotes fast and wide immune reconstitution and GvHD control. This approach is currently tested in a phase III multicenter randomized trial (TK008 study, NCT00914628). We targeted patients with advanced leukeia with a sirolimus-based, calcineurin inhibitor-free prophylaxis of GvHD to allow the safe infusion of unmanipulated PBSCs from haploidentical family donors (TrRaMM study, Eudract 2007-5477-54). Results of these approaches are summarized and discussed.
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