Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) traditionally has inferior outcomes compared to de novo AML. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the sole potentially curative therapy. This study analyzes the outcomes for unmanipulated haploidentical HCT (haploHCT) for sAML using the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) registry of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). We identified 154 patients with sAML who underwent haploHCT from 2006 to 2016. Median age at HCT was 60 years with time from diagnosis to HCT 5 months. At transplantation, 69 patients were in first CR and 85 had active disease. Fifty-seven (38.0%) patients underwent myeloablative conditioning and 97 (62.0%) reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) conditioning. Multivariate analysis showed that there was no difference in RI, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), leukemia free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), or GVHD-free/relapse free survival (GRFS) for conditioning intensity, age, performance status, or graft source. Active disease was associated with higher RI and inferior LFS, OS, and GRFS compared with patients in CR at time of transplant. T-cell depletion with anti-thymoglobulin resulted in higher NRM and inferior LFS, OS, and GRFS compared to post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) (HR 2.25, 2.01, 2.16, and 1.73, respectively with P values <.05). Our data shows that haploHCT is a feasible alternative for sAML when matched transplantation is unavailable.
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