Alcohol abuse and smoking habits have adverse effects on bone health and are a risk factor for osteoporosis, fractures and impaired fracture repair. Osteointegration processes around implanted biomaterials involve a coordinated cascade of complex events that are very similar to those occurring during fracture repair and require a suitable microenvironment and the coordinated action of cells and signal molecules. Therefore, diseases and harmful lifestyles that impair the normal bone healing process can reduce the success of implant surgery and may negatively influence the osteointegration of prostheses and implant devices for fracture fixation such as screws, nails and plates. Understanding the effects of harmful lifestyles on bone implant osteointegration is important for successful implant therapy, orthopedic reconstructive surgery and tissue-engineered-based therapies. However, the mechanisms by which smoking and alcoholism affect bone metabolism, bone mass and the balance of bone resorption and formation, also in the presence of an orthopedic implant, are not completely understood and remain inadequately elucidated. This review aims to analyze in vitro and in vivo studies regarding orthopedic implant integration in the presence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption with a focus on pathophysiology and local or systemic mechanisms of action on bone.
- Orthopedic implant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine