HbA1c variability as an independent correlate of nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes: The renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Giuseppe Penno, Anna Solini, Enzo Bonora, Cecilia Fondelli, Emanuela Orsi, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Susanna Morano, Franco Cavalot, Olga Lamacchia, Luigi Laviola, Antonio Nicolucci, Giuseppe Pugliese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE-To examine the association of hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability with microvascular complications in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. RESEARCH DESIGNANDMETHODS-Serial (3-5) HbA1c values collected in a 2-year period before enrollment were available from 8,260 subjects from 9 centers (of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). HbA1c variability was measured as the intraindividual SD of 4.52 ± 0.76 values. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated funduscopy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine. RESULTS-Median and interquartile range of average HbA1c (HbA1c-MEAN) and HbA1c-SD were 7.57% (6.86-8.38) and 0.46% (0.29-0.74), respectively. The highest prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, albuminuric CKD phenotypes, and advanced DR was observed when bothHbA 1c parameters were above themedian and the lowest when bothwere below the median. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-SD adds toHbA1c-MEAN as an independent correlate of microalbuminuria and stages 1-2 CKD and is an independent predictor of macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, and stages 3-5 albuminuric CKD, whereas HbA1c-MEAN is not. The opposite was found for DR, whereas neither HbA1c-MEAN nor HbA 1c-SD affected nonalbuminuric CKD. CONCLUSIONS-In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability affects (albuminuric) CKD more than average HbA1c, whereas only the latter parameter affects DR, thus suggesting a variable effect of these measures on microvascular complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2301-2310
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume36
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Multicenter Studies
Renal Insufficiency
Diabetic Retinopathy
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Albuminuria
Creatinine
Hemoglobins
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Phenotype
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing
  • Medicine(all)

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HbA1c variability as an independent correlate of nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes : The renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. / Penno, Giuseppe; Solini, Anna; Bonora, Enzo; Fondelli, Cecilia; Orsi, Emanuela; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Morano, Susanna; Cavalot, Franco; Lamacchia, Olga; Laviola, Luigi; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe.

In: Diabetes Care, Vol. 36, No. 8, 2013, p. 2301-2310.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Penno, Giuseppe ; Solini, Anna ; Bonora, Enzo ; Fondelli, Cecilia ; Orsi, Emanuela ; Zerbini, Gianpaolo ; Morano, Susanna ; Cavalot, Franco ; Lamacchia, Olga ; Laviola, Luigi ; Nicolucci, Antonio ; Pugliese, Giuseppe. / HbA1c variability as an independent correlate of nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes : The renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. In: Diabetes Care. 2013 ; Vol. 36, No. 8. pp. 2301-2310.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE-To examine the association of hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability with microvascular complications in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. RESEARCH DESIGNANDMETHODS-Serial (3-5) HbA1c values collected in a 2-year period before enrollment were available from 8,260 subjects from 9 centers (of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). HbA1c variability was measured as the intraindividual SD of 4.52 ± 0.76 values. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated funduscopy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine. RESULTS-Median and interquartile range of average HbA1c (HbA1c-MEAN) and HbA1c-SD were 7.57{\%} (6.86-8.38) and 0.46{\%} (0.29-0.74), respectively. The highest prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, albuminuric CKD phenotypes, and advanced DR was observed when bothHbA 1c parameters were above themedian and the lowest when bothwere below the median. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-SD adds toHbA1c-MEAN as an independent correlate of microalbuminuria and stages 1-2 CKD and is an independent predictor of macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, and stages 3-5 albuminuric CKD, whereas HbA1c-MEAN is not. The opposite was found for DR, whereas neither HbA1c-MEAN nor HbA 1c-SD affected nonalbuminuric CKD. CONCLUSIONS-In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability affects (albuminuric) CKD more than average HbA1c, whereas only the latter parameter affects DR, thus suggesting a variable effect of these measures on microvascular complications.",
author = "Giuseppe Penno and Anna Solini and Enzo Bonora and Cecilia Fondelli and Emanuela Orsi and Gianpaolo Zerbini and Susanna Morano and Franco Cavalot and Olga Lamacchia and Luigi Laviola and Antonio Nicolucci and Giuseppe Pugliese",
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T1 - HbA1c variability as an independent correlate of nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes

T2 - The renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

AU - Penno, Giuseppe

AU - Solini, Anna

AU - Bonora, Enzo

AU - Fondelli, Cecilia

AU - Orsi, Emanuela

AU - Zerbini, Gianpaolo

AU - Morano, Susanna

AU - Cavalot, Franco

AU - Lamacchia, Olga

AU - Laviola, Luigi

AU - Nicolucci, Antonio

AU - Pugliese, Giuseppe

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - OBJECTIVE-To examine the association of hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability with microvascular complications in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. RESEARCH DESIGNANDMETHODS-Serial (3-5) HbA1c values collected in a 2-year period before enrollment were available from 8,260 subjects from 9 centers (of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). HbA1c variability was measured as the intraindividual SD of 4.52 ± 0.76 values. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated funduscopy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine. RESULTS-Median and interquartile range of average HbA1c (HbA1c-MEAN) and HbA1c-SD were 7.57% (6.86-8.38) and 0.46% (0.29-0.74), respectively. The highest prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, albuminuric CKD phenotypes, and advanced DR was observed when bothHbA 1c parameters were above themedian and the lowest when bothwere below the median. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-SD adds toHbA1c-MEAN as an independent correlate of microalbuminuria and stages 1-2 CKD and is an independent predictor of macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, and stages 3-5 albuminuric CKD, whereas HbA1c-MEAN is not. The opposite was found for DR, whereas neither HbA1c-MEAN nor HbA 1c-SD affected nonalbuminuric CKD. CONCLUSIONS-In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability affects (albuminuric) CKD more than average HbA1c, whereas only the latter parameter affects DR, thus suggesting a variable effect of these measures on microvascular complications.

AB - OBJECTIVE-To examine the association of hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability with microvascular complications in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. RESEARCH DESIGNANDMETHODS-Serial (3-5) HbA1c values collected in a 2-year period before enrollment were available from 8,260 subjects from 9 centers (of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). HbA1c variability was measured as the intraindividual SD of 4.52 ± 0.76 values. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated funduscopy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine. RESULTS-Median and interquartile range of average HbA1c (HbA1c-MEAN) and HbA1c-SD were 7.57% (6.86-8.38) and 0.46% (0.29-0.74), respectively. The highest prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, albuminuric CKD phenotypes, and advanced DR was observed when bothHbA 1c parameters were above themedian and the lowest when bothwere below the median. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-SD adds toHbA1c-MEAN as an independent correlate of microalbuminuria and stages 1-2 CKD and is an independent predictor of macroalbuminuria, reduced eGFR, and stages 3-5 albuminuric CKD, whereas HbA1c-MEAN is not. The opposite was found for DR, whereas neither HbA1c-MEAN nor HbA 1c-SD affected nonalbuminuric CKD. CONCLUSIONS-In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability affects (albuminuric) CKD more than average HbA1c, whereas only the latter parameter affects DR, thus suggesting a variable effect of these measures on microvascular complications.

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