Headache attributed to infection: Observations on the IHS classification (ICHD-II)

E. Marchioni, E. Tavazzi, G. Bono, L. Minoli, S. Bastianello, E. Sinforiani, G. Sances, C. Tinelli, G. Nappi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to revise some topics in the chapter 'Headache attributed to infections' in the last International Headache Society (IHS) classification. The authors searched for original studies and reviews about headache associated with infections. A checklist was submitted to 15 neurologists to quantify the relevance, comprehensibility and coherence between definitions, criteria and comments for each paragraph. The following paragraphs were fully discussed: (1) headache attributed to lymphocytic meningitis. This topic, being rather heterogeneous, should be divided into different subgroups; (2) headache attributed to HIV/AIDS. Distinctive features are not specified and diagnostic criteria are rather confusing; and (3) chronic post-infection headache. Diagnostic criteria should be reconsidered as the symptom 'pain' is not the main diagnostic criterion. The authors propose the revision of three paragraphs of the new IHS classification to better define the most likely headache profile in specific CNS infections. The authors also underline the need to plan further ad hoc prospective studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1427-1433
Number of pages7
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006


  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (AOEM)
  • Headache
  • HIV
  • IHS classification
  • Infections
  • Meningoencephalitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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