Health determinants in italian type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients: A critical gender differences analysis

R. Caruso, C. Arrigoni, A. Magon, F. Pittella, F. Dellafiore, A.M. Grugnetti, D. Ausili, F. Auxilia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Different studies described the important role of wellbeing, self-care and self-efficacy (i.e. health determinants) to achieve best health outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, literature has paid little attention to highlight the possible gender differences related to the T2DM perception of those health determinants. For these reason, the aim of this study was to describe T2DM patients' gender differences related to their wellbeing, self-care and self-efficacy. This study was performed by a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional research, conducted in an outpatient setting in Northern Italy. Data was collected from March 2014 and July 2016 in a cohort of 115 T2DM outpatients, aged from 60 to 91 years (mean = 69.78 ± 7.11). Our results showed that men perceived more general wellbeing than women, and more diabetes specific self-efficacy. No differences seemed to be related to self-care. Indeed, the stratification by gender of the bivariate analysis allowed to identify many peculiarities related to wellbeing domains and self-efficacy. This study had a pioneering nuance in Italian assessment of T2DM health determinants, and it could have a number of future implications. Further empirical researches should provide more information to deeply understand the T2DM patients' peculiarities, which could help nurses to improve a personalized care delivery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-108
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Research in Gender Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Diabetes
  • Gender differences
  • Nursing
  • Self-care
  • Self-efficacy
  • Well-being


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