Hearing impairment in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: the inaudible and noiseless foot of time

Francesco Morini, Irma Capolupo, Roberto Masi, Maria Paola Ronchetti, Mattia Locatelli, Carlo Corchia, Pietro Bagolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim of the Study: Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at high risk of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is known to increase this risk, but little is known about other potential causes. We evaluated the impact of several risk factors on SNHL development in CDH survivors not treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Methods: All high-risk CDH survivors consecutively treated between 1999 and 2005 were included. SNHL was diagnosed based on formal assessment with standard audiologic tests. Patients with and without SNHL were compared for patient-related and treatment-related risk factors. Subsequently, a logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with SNHL development. Main Results: Out of 87 CDH survivors, 82 had a formal audiologic evaluation and 40 (49%) had SNHL. Patients with SNHL had significantly lower gestational age (P = .045); higher prevalence of sepsis (P <.001); older age at audiologic examination (P <.001); more episodes of hypocapnia (P = .045); higher prevalence of inhaled nitric oxide use (P = .005); longer mechanical ventilation (P = .009); and longer aminoglycosides (P = .006), furosemide (P = .004), and pancuronium bromide (P = .001) treatments. On logistic regression analysis, the only variable independently associated with the development of SNHL was patient's age at audiologic follow-up (P = .012). Conclusions: Several risk factors were associated with SNHL development at univariate analysis. After logistic regression, only age at evaluation remained independently associated with SNHL. Routine audiologic follow-up is advocated in all CDH patients. Further studies are needed to define if other (genetic) factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of SNHL in patients with CDH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-384
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2008


  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • Late onset
  • Long-term follow-up
  • Neonates
  • Ototoxic drugs
  • Outcome
  • Sensorineural hearing loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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