Significant differences between sexes may influence the prevalence, incidence and severity of the heart failure syndrome. These differences may also interfere with treatment and management. In this review sex differences and similarities have been analyzed focusing on epidemiology, drug therapy and psychological implications. Pathophysiological differences but also a selection bias are evident; such differences bear an influence on clinical management. Gender differences exist even in the health-related quality of life, depression and coping ability. No studies have been specifically designed to investigate gender differences and the exclusion of elderly persons (mainly women) from large trials may compromise the quality of their care.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Italian Heart Journal|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2003|
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine