Heart rate not only predicts outcome but may also be a therapeutic target in patients with chronic heart failure. Several classes of pharmacological agents can be used to modulate heart rate, including beta-blockers, ivabradine, digoxin, amiodarone, and verapamil. Choice of agent will depend on heart rhythm, co-morbidities, and disease phenotype. Beneficial and harmful interactions may also exist. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current body of knowledge regarding the relevance of heart rate as a prognostic factor (risk marker) and particularly as a therapeutic target (riskfactor) in patients with chronic heart failure, with a special focus on ivabradine, a novel agent that is currently the only available purely bra-dycardic agent.
- Chronic heart failure
- Heart rate
- Heart rate-lowering drugs
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine