Heart rate control in an unselected consecutive population of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease: Analysis of the CARDIf Study Cohort.

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BACKGROUND: Despite increasing pharmacological and mechanical treatment options, coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. The detrimental effects of elevated heart rate (HR) on cardiac morbidity and mortality are well established. Although β-blockers represent the mainstay of treatment of patients with CAD and heart failure (HF), according to current guidelines, these drugs are most often undertitrated for various reasons despite the lack of real contraindications. This observational, cross-sectional, multicenter survey was designed to assess which clinical variables influence HR and whether HR is adequately controlled; and the rate of administration of β-blockers in patients with chronic CAD attending outpatient clinics. METHODS: Over 6 months 2226 (of 2362 screened) outpatients with stable CAD and resting HR > 60 beats/min (bpm) were enrolled. Left ventricular systolic function was not a criterion of inclusion. Each patient had a full clinical examination and the past medical history, angina, or HF-related symptoms were evaluated. In each patient, the demographics and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed; weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated; sitting blood pressure and a HR by a 12-lead electrocardiogram was obtained. RESULTS: Overall, 45.4% of patients with CAD were not under β-blocker therapy. Male patients featured a significantly lower HR than females, corrected from β-blockers use. In multiple regression analysis, which also included the use/nonuse of β-blockers as independent variable, not using β-blockers, female sex (OR 2.55), New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I and II (OR 1.62 vs classes III-IV), smoking (OR 0.89), and increased BMI (OR 0.14) were all independent determinants of resting HR, with the lack of β-blockade therapy (OR 3.35) being the main determinant of the magnitude of HR increase. Heart rate in patients under β-blocker therapy was significantly less than in untreated patients (73.6 ± 10.0 vs 77.1 ± 10.4, P <.0001), although it often did not reach target values of

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-767
Number of pages5
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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