Anthracycline cardiotoxicity can induce dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nine patients (four men) experienced postchemotherapy DCM: age at time of tumour diagnosis ranged from 1-45 years (mean 13.5 ± 19 years); interval time between tumour and HT was 3-23 years (mean 10.8 ± 6.6) and age at HT ranged from 10-65 years (30.8 ± 20.1). Interval between end of chemotherapy and beginning of cardiac symptoms was 5.71 ± 4.6 years. Mean age at DCM diagnosis was 19.2 ± 19.7 (range 1-50 years). Interval between start of chemotherapy and DCM ranged from 1 month to 10 years (mean 3.15 ± 3.6 years). Tumours were Ewing sarcoma (7-year-old boy), paratesticular rabdomyosarcoma (1-year-old boy), Wilms tumor with pulmonary metastasis (3-year-old girl), bilateral breast carcinoma (45-year-old woman), uterine leiomyosarcoma (44-year-old woman), acute myelocytic leukemia (1.5-year-old boy and 17-year-old girl), and chronic myelocytic leukemia (5-year-old boy). All patients had high pulmonary resistance values. One patient with chronic myelocytic leukemia (14 year-old at HT) died due to graft failure on the first postoperative day. At follow-up (mean, 80.4 ± 69.3 months) two patients died: a 32-year-old woman (acute myelocytic leukemia) 1 year after HT for sepsis and a 68-year-old woman who had breast adenocarcinoma recurrence 81 months after HT. The remaining patients are alive, in good condition with no difference in survival from other transplanted patients (P = .757). Patients with end-stage postchemotherapy DCM without evidence of tumour recurrence can safely undergo HT.
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