Heiner syndrome and milk hypersensitivity: An updated overview on the current evidence

Stefania Arasi, Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Mattia Giovannini, Francesca Mori, Simona Barni, Lucia Caminiti, Riccardo Castagnoli, Lucia Liotti, Francesca Saretta, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Elio Novembre

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Infants affected by Heiner syndrome (HS) display chronic upper or lower respiratory tract infections, including otitis media or pneumonia. Clinically, gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, ane-mia, recurrent fever and failure to thrive can be also present. Chest X-rays can show patchy infiltrates miming pneumonia. Clinical manifestations usually disappear after a milk-free diet. The patho-genetic mechanism underlying HS remains unexplained, but the formation of immune complexes and the cell-mediated reaction have been proposed. Patients usually outgrow this hypersensitivity within a few years. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview on the current evidence on HS in children, with a critical approach on the still undefined points of this interesting disease. Finally, we propose the first structured diagnostic approach for HS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1710
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Allergy
  • Anemia
  • Children
  • Cow’s milk
  • Immunology
  • Non-IgE-mediated food allergy
  • Pneumonia
  • Pulmonary hemosiderosis
  • Pulmonary infiltrates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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