Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in neuromyelitis optica-spectrum disorders (NMO-SD): State-of-the-art and future perspectives: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

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Abstract

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Understanding of the molecular basis of these diseases in the last decades has led to an important improvement in the treatment of this disease, in particular, to the use of immunotherapeutic approaches, such as monoclonal antibodies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this review is to summarize the pathogenesis, biological basis and new treatment options of these disorders, with a particular focus on HSCT applications. Different HSCT strategies are being explored in NMOSD, both autologous and allogeneic HSCT, with the new emergence of therapeutic effects such as an induction of tolerance to auto-antigens and graft versus autoimmunity effects that can be exploited to hopefully treat a disease that still has prognosis. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalInt. J. Mol. Sci.
Volume21
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • HSCT
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • NMO
  • NMOSD
  • aquaporin 4
  • azathioprine
  • eculizumab
  • granulocyte colony stimulating factor
  • interleukin 8
  • methotrexate
  • methylprednisolone
  • mycophenolate mofetil
  • myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
  • natalizumab
  • rituximab
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
  • allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity
  • antigen presenting cell
  • area postrema
  • autoimmunity
  • autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • blood brain barrier
  • brain damage
  • CD4+ T lymphocyte
  • cell mediated cytotoxicity
  • clinical feature
  • complement activation
  • demyelination
  • disease activity
  • disease duration
  • graft versus host reaction
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • HLA system
  • hospitalization
  • human
  • immune system
  • myelooptic neuropathy
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • nonhuman
  • nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
  • oligodendroglia
  • pathogenesis
  • plasmapheresis
  • prevalence
  • Review
  • spinal cord lesion
  • allograft
  • immunology
  • pathology
  • Allografts
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Humans
  • Neuromyelitis Optica

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