Hemodiafiltration maintains a sustained improvement in blood pressure compared to conventional hemodialysis in children—the HDF, heart and height (3H) study

Francesca De Zan, Colette Smith, Ali Duzova, Aysun Bayazit, Constantinos J. Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Karolis Azukaitis, Nur Canpolat, Ayse Agbas, Ali Anarat, Bilal Aoun, Sevcan A. Bakkaloglu, Dagmara Borzych-Dużałka, Ipek Kaplan Bulut, Sandra Habbig, Saoussen Krid, Christoph Licht, Mieczyslaw Litwin, Lukasz Obrycki, Fabio PaglialongaBruno Ranchin, Charlotte Samaille, Mohan Shenoy, Manish D. Sinha, Brankica Spasojevic, Alev Yilmaz, Michel Fischbach, Claus Peter Schmitt, Franz Schaefer, Enrico Vidal, Rukshana Shroff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Hypertension is prevalent in children on dialysis and associated with cardiovascular disease. We studied the blood pressure (BP) trends and the evolution of BP over 1 year in children on conventional hemodialysis (HD) vs. hemodiafiltration (HDF). Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the “3H – HDF-Hearts-Height” dataset, a multicenter, parallel-arm observational study. Seventy-eight children on HD and 55 on HDF who had three 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) measures over 1 year were included. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated and hypertension defined as 24-h MAP standard deviation score (SDS) ≥95th percentile. Results: Poor agreement between pre-dialysis systolic BP-SDS and 24-h MAP was found (mean difference − 0.6; 95% limits of agreement −4.9–3.8). At baseline, 82% on HD and 44% on HDF were hypertensive, with uncontrolled hypertension in 88% vs. 25% respectively; p < 0.001. At 12 months, children on HDF had consistently lower MAP-SDS compared to those on HD (p < 0.001). Over 1-year follow-up, the HD group had mean MAP-SDS increase of +0.98 (95%CI 0.77–1.20; p < 0.0001), whereas the HDF group had a non-significant increase of +0.15 (95%CI −0.10–0.40; p = 0.23). Significant predictors of MAP-SDS were dialysis modality (β = +0.83 [95%CI +0.51 − +1.15] HD vs. HDF, p < 0.0001) and higher inter-dialytic-weight-gain (IDWG)% (β = 0.13 [95%CI 0.06–0.19]; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: Children on HD had a significant and sustained increase in BP over 1 year compared to a stable BP in those on HDF, despite an equivalent dialysis dose. Higher IDWG% was associated with higher 24-h MAP-SDS in both groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2393-2403
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 3H study
  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)
  • Blood pressure (BP)
  • Children
  • Hemodiafiltration (HDF)
  • Hemodialysis (HD)
  • Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Nephrology


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