Symptomatic intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). The application of convective therapies to the outpatient setting may improve outcomes, including intradialytic hypotension. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled study, we randomly assigned 146 long-term dialysis patients to HD (n = 70), online predilution hemofiltration (HF; n = 36), or online predilution hemodiafiltration (HDF; n = 40). The primary end point was the frequency of intradialytic symptomatic hypotension (ISH). Compared with the run-in period, the frequency of sessions with ISH during the evaluation period increased for HD (7.1 to 7.9%) and decreased for both HF (9.8 to 8.0%) and HDF (10.6 to 5.2%) (P <0.001). Mean predialysis systolic BP increased by 4.2 mmHg among those who were assigned to HDF compared with decreases of 0.6 and 1.8 mmHg among those who were assigned to HD and HF, respectively (P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated significant risk reductions in ISH for both HF (odds ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) and HDF (odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.63). There was a trend toward higher dropout for those who were assigned to HF (P = 0.107). In conclusion, compared with conventional HD, convective therapies (HDF and HF) reduce ISH in long-term dialysis patients.
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