Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Giuseppe Penno, Anna Solini, Giacomo Zoppini, Emanuela Orsi, Cecilia Fondelli, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Susanna Morano, Franco Cavalot, Olga Lamacchia, Roberto Trevisan, Monica Vedovato, Giuseppe Pugliese

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Abstract

Background: Previous reports have clearly indicated a significant relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) A1c change from one visit to the next and microvascular complications, especially nephropathy (albuminuria and albuminuric chronic kidney disease, CKD). In contrast, data on macrovascular disease are less clear. This study was aimed at examining the association of HbA1c variability with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study.Methods: Serial (3-5) HbA1c values obtained during the 2-year period preceding recruitment, including that obtained at the enrolment, were available from 8,290 subjects from 9 centers (out of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). Average HbA1c and HbA1c variability were calculated as the intra-individual mean (HbA1c-MEAN) and standard deviation (HbA1c-SD), respectively, of 4.52±0.76 values. Prevalent CVD, total and by vascular bed, was assessed from medical history by recording previous documented major acute events. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated fundoscopy. CKD was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, as calculated from serum creatinine.Results: HbA1c-MEAN, but not HbA1c-SD, was significantly higher (P1c-MEAN, and 0.47 (0.29-0.75) and 0.46 (0.28-0.73), respectively, for HbA1c-SD. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-MEAN, but not HbA1c-SD (and independent of it), was a significant correlate of any CVD. Similar findings were observed in subjects with versus those without any coronary or cerebrovascular event or myocardial infarction. Conversely, none of these measures were associated with stroke, whereas both correlated with any lower limb vascular event and HbA1c-SD alone with ulceration/gangrene. All these associations were independent of known CVD risk factors and microvascular complications (DR and CKD).Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability has not a major impact on macrovascular complications, at variance with average HbA1c, an opposite finding as compared with microvascular disease, and particularly nephropathy.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00715481.

Original languageEnglish
Article number98
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 5 2013

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Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Retinopathy
  • Risk factors
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine(all)

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