Hepatitis C virus-induced glomerular disease and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome after liver transplant: Case report and literature review

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Abstract

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with numerous extra-hepatic complications, including neurological and renal manifestations. We describe the case of a 67-year-old Caucasian man with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The early posttransplant course was complicated by fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis due to recurrent HCV in the graft (HCV RNA up to 44,944,438 IU/mL). Proliferative glomerulonephritis (nephritic and nephrotic syndrome) with mixed cryoglobulinemia (purpura) was also recorded. Seventy-two days after surgery, the patient presented with seizures and arterial hypertension; brain magnetic resonance imaging indicated the diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PRES responded well to medical treatment with complete resolution of neurological changes. Antiviral therapy (sofosbuvir and ribavirin, six months) gave a sustained viral response with the improvement of cryoglobulinemic symptoms (including glomerular disease). Repeat liver biopsy revealed the regression of cholestatic damage and perisinusoidal fibrosis. The current follow-up shows stable chronic renal failure (serum creatinine: 1.4 mg/dL) and mild nephritic syndrome. The impact of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV on patient outcomes is highlighted from novel observational studies reporting a relationship between HCV cure (as expressed by the sustained viral response) and a decrease in both liver-related and renal complications. Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and tolerance of novel direct-acting antiviral agents for the management of HCV-associated glomerular diseases are underway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-249
Number of pages11
JournalSaudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia
Volume30
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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