Hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis in 746 patients: Long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection

T. Livraghi, A. Giorgio, G. Marin, A. Salmi, I. De Sio, L. Bolondi, M. Pompili, F. Brunello, S. Lazzaroni, G. Torzilli, A. Zucchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: To define indications for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Survival rates were determined in 746 patients who had undergone PEI (567 men, 179 women; mean age, 64.3 years; mean follow-up, 36 months). RESULTS: In patients with Child A (n = 293), B (n = 149), or C (n = 20) cirrhosis and single HCCs 5 cm or smaller, the 3-5-year survival rate was 47%-79%, 29%-63%, and 0%-12%, respectively. In patients with Child A cirrhosis, it was 36%-68% for multiple HCCs (n = 121), 30%-53% for single HCCs larger than 5 cm (n = 28), and 0%-16% for advanced HCC (n = 16). Treatment was associated with a 1.7% rate of severe complications and a 0.1% mortality rate. CONCLUSION: PEI proved safe, effective, and repeatable and had a low cost. Survival after PEI was comparable to that after surgery, probably because of a balancing between greater radicality of surgery and absence of early mortality and liver damage of PEI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-108
Number of pages8
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • Alcohol
  • Liver neoplasms, therapy
  • Liver, interventional procedure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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