Hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Primary liver cancer (namely hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is worldwide the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh one in women, and it represents the third most frequent cause of cancer death. HCC rates are particularly high in eastern/southeastern Asia and in Africa, intermediate in Southern Europe, and low in most high-income countries. Persistent infections by HBV or HCV are the main recognized risk factors for HCC. Aflatoxin exposure is also an important risk factor for HCC development in Africa and eastern Asia. In high-income countries heavy alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, overweight, diabetes, familial/genetic factors, and selected dietary aspects, have a relevant role. Updated geographic patterns and time trends in mortality from HCC in Europe, USA, Japan, and Australia are provided in the present review, together with an overview of relevant etiologic factors for HCC and main measures for the prevention of this neoplasm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)753-770
Number of pages18
JournalBailliere's Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Epidemiology
  • Hepatitis virus
  • Hepatocellular cancer
  • Liver cancer
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Medicine(all)


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