Heterogeneity in exposed uninfected individuals

L. Lopalco, C. Pastori, C. Barassi, L. Furci, S. Burastero, E. Lillo, E. Boeri, L. Soldini, G. Tambussi, A. Lazzarin, A. Beretta, A. G. Siccardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In spite of repeated exposures to HIV, some individuals remain seronegative and apparently uninfected. A variety of mechanisms potentially able to confer resistance to HIV infection, including cell-mediated and (unconventional) humoral immune responses, as well as mutations affecting receptors for virus entry have been considered and analysed. In this article, we want to discuss recent reports on specific immune responses and genetic factors potentially involved in mechanisms of protection, and to present some of our data relative to a cohort of people sexually exposed to HIV-1, but persistently seronegative. These EU (exposed uninfected) individuals can be distinguished from 'normal' unexposed controls on the basis of significantly increased frequencies of a number of immunological parameters that might be considered 'unconventional' correlates of HIV infection/protection. However, EU individuals are highly heterogeneous since the various unconventional immune responses considered can be present in all possible combinations. Aim of future research will be to ascertain the role of such immune responses in the maintenance of the protection state, or their secondary nature as signals of a particular kind of infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-31
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1997


  • CCR5 gene
  • Cellular immunity
  • Exposed uninfected
  • HIV-1
  • Humoral immunity
  • Neutralizing antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Endocrinology
  • Physiology
  • Immunology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology (medical)


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