Heterogeneous tumor features and treatment outcome between males and females with lung cancer (LC): Do gender and sex matter?

Stefano Frega, Alessandro Dal Maso, Alessandra Ferro, Laura Bonanno, PierFranco Conte, Giulia Pasello

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, despite a decreasing incidence rate in recent years, especially in men. Most risk factors for LC could be linked to an individual's reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics ('sex-related') and/or to some physical, behavioral and personality traits ('gender-related') peculiar to males rather than females or vice versa. An imbalance of these etiologic factors could explain why some LC features may differ between sexes. For this review, an extended literature data collection was performed, using keywords to identify 'sex/gender' and 'LC'. Differences between genders in LC epidemiology, pathological and molecular characteristics, loco-regional and/or systemic treatments outcome and prognosis were systematically analyzed. The possible predictive role of physio-pathological factors in males and females paves the way for a personalized therapeutic approach, emphasizing the need to include gender as a stratification factor in future clinical trials design.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-103
Number of pages17
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Volume138
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

Keywords

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

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