HHV8-negative effusion-based large B cell lymphoma arising in chronic myeloid leukemia patients under dasatinib treatment: A report of two cases

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Abstract

Simple Summary: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the treatment of choice for BCR-ABL1- positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Dasatinib is a second generation TKI frequently associated with pleural effusion in up to 33% of patients. Here, we describe two cases of HHV8-negative large B cell effusion-based lymphoma (EBL) confined to the pleura, incidentally, diagnosed in patients presenting with dasatinib-related pleural effusion. One patient is alive and is in remission at 17 months from diagnosis, while unfortunately the other patient died of progressive disease and novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pneumonia 16 months from diagnosis. These cases of large B cell EBL in patients receiving dasatinib raise concern about a possible association and we strongly recommend cytological investigation in patients with persistent/relapsing pleural effusion under dasatinib to improve the knowledge about this entity. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the treatment of choice for BCR-ABL1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although TKIs have substantially improved prognosis of CML patients, their use is not free of adverse effects. Dasatinib is a second generation TKI frequently associated with pleural effusion in up to 33% of patients. This results in symptoms as dyspnea, cough and chest pain that may require therapy discontinuation. In the present report, we describe two exceptional cases of HHV8-negative large B-cell effusion-based lymphoma (EBL) confined to the pleura, incidentally, diagnosed in patients presenting with dasatinib-related pleural effusion. One patient (case 1) is alive and is in remission at 17 months from large B-cell EBL diagnosis while unfortunately the other patient (case 2) died of progressive disease and COVID-19 pneumonia 16 months from large B-cell EBL diagnosis. These cases raise concern about a possible association between large B-cell EBL and dasatinib, and the different clinical outcome of the two cases poses a challenge in treatment decision. For this reason, we strongly recommend cytological investigation in patients with persistent/relapsing pleural effusion under dasatinib, primarily to validate its possible association with lymphoma development and to improve the knowledge about this entity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number152
Number of pages7
JournalBiology
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • CML
  • Dasatinib
  • EBL
  • EBV
  • HHV8
  • Large B cell lymphoma
  • Large B-cell effusion-based lymphoma
  • Pleural effusion
  • TKIs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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