High-altitude hypoxia and periodic breathing during sleep: Gender-related differences

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High-altitude exposure is characterized by the appearance of periodic breathing during sleep. Only limited evidence is available, however, on the presence of gender-related differences in this breathing pattern. In 37 healthy subjects, 23 male and 14 female, we performed nocturnal cardio-respiratory monitoring in the following conditions: (1) sea level; (2) first/second night at an altitude of 3400 m; (3) first/second night at an altitude of 5400 m and after a 10 day sojourn at 5400 m. At sea level, a normal breathing pattern was observed in all subjects throughout the night. At 3400 m the apnea-hypopnea index was 40.3 ± 33.0 in males (central apneas 77.6%, central hypopneas 22.4%) and 2.4 ± 2.8 in females (central apneas 58.2%, central hypopneas 41.8%; P <0.01). During the first recording at 5400 m, the apnea-hypopnea index was 87.5 ± 35.7 in males (central apneas 60.0%, central hypopneas 40.0%) and 41.1 ± 44.0 in females (central apneas 73.2%, central hypopneas 26.8%; P <0.01), again with a higher frequency of central events in males as seen at lower altitude. Similar results were observed after 10 days. With increasing altitude, there was also a progressive reduction in respiratory cycle length during central apneas in males (26.9 ± 3.4 s at 3400 m and 22.6 ± 3.7 s at 5400 m). Females, who displayed a significant number of central apneas only at the highest reached altitude, were characterized by longer cycle length than males at similar altitude (30.1 ± 5.8 s at 5400 m). In conclusion, at high altitude, nocturnal periodic breathing affects males more than females. Females started to present a significant number of central sleep apneas only at the highest reached altitude. After 10 days at 5400 m gender differences in the apnea-hypopnea index similar to those observed after acute exposure were still observed, accompanied by differences in respiratory cycle length.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-330
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sleep Research
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Fingerprint

Altitude Sickness
Central Sleep Apnea
Sleep
Respiration
Apnea
Oceans and Seas
Healthy Volunteers

Keywords

  • Gender
  • High-altitude hypoxia
  • Sleep-disordered breathing
  • Sleep-related periodic breathing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

@article{82ff029ea4b247498edf73a5db06c221,
title = "High-altitude hypoxia and periodic breathing during sleep: Gender-related differences",
abstract = "High-altitude exposure is characterized by the appearance of periodic breathing during sleep. Only limited evidence is available, however, on the presence of gender-related differences in this breathing pattern. In 37 healthy subjects, 23 male and 14 female, we performed nocturnal cardio-respiratory monitoring in the following conditions: (1) sea level; (2) first/second night at an altitude of 3400 m; (3) first/second night at an altitude of 5400 m and after a 10 day sojourn at 5400 m. At sea level, a normal breathing pattern was observed in all subjects throughout the night. At 3400 m the apnea-hypopnea index was 40.3 ± 33.0 in males (central apneas 77.6{\%}, central hypopneas 22.4{\%}) and 2.4 ± 2.8 in females (central apneas 58.2{\%}, central hypopneas 41.8{\%}; P <0.01). During the first recording at 5400 m, the apnea-hypopnea index was 87.5 ± 35.7 in males (central apneas 60.0{\%}, central hypopneas 40.0{\%}) and 41.1 ± 44.0 in females (central apneas 73.2{\%}, central hypopneas 26.8{\%}; P <0.01), again with a higher frequency of central events in males as seen at lower altitude. Similar results were observed after 10 days. With increasing altitude, there was also a progressive reduction in respiratory cycle length during central apneas in males (26.9 ± 3.4 s at 3400 m and 22.6 ± 3.7 s at 5400 m). Females, who displayed a significant number of central apneas only at the highest reached altitude, were characterized by longer cycle length than males at similar altitude (30.1 ± 5.8 s at 5400 m). In conclusion, at high altitude, nocturnal periodic breathing affects males more than females. Females started to present a significant number of central sleep apneas only at the highest reached altitude. After 10 days at 5400 m gender differences in the apnea-hypopnea index similar to those observed after acute exposure were still observed, accompanied by differences in respiratory cycle length.",
keywords = "Gender, High-altitude hypoxia, Sleep-disordered breathing, Sleep-related periodic breathing",
author = "Carolina Lombardi and Paolo Meriggi and Piergiuseppe Agostoni and Andrea Faini and Grzegorz Bilo and Miriam Revera and Gianluca Caldara and {Di Rienzo}, Marco and Paolo Castiglioni and Bussotti Maurizio and Francesca Gregorini and Giuseppe Mancia and Gianfranco Parati",
year = "2013",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1111/jsr.12012",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "322--330",
journal = "Journal of Sleep Research",
issn = "0962-1105",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - High-altitude hypoxia and periodic breathing during sleep

T2 - Gender-related differences

AU - Lombardi, Carolina

AU - Meriggi, Paolo

AU - Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

AU - Faini, Andrea

AU - Bilo, Grzegorz

AU - Revera, Miriam

AU - Caldara, Gianluca

AU - Di Rienzo, Marco

AU - Castiglioni, Paolo

AU - Maurizio, Bussotti

AU - Gregorini, Francesca

AU - Mancia, Giuseppe

AU - Parati, Gianfranco

PY - 2013/6

Y1 - 2013/6

N2 - High-altitude exposure is characterized by the appearance of periodic breathing during sleep. Only limited evidence is available, however, on the presence of gender-related differences in this breathing pattern. In 37 healthy subjects, 23 male and 14 female, we performed nocturnal cardio-respiratory monitoring in the following conditions: (1) sea level; (2) first/second night at an altitude of 3400 m; (3) first/second night at an altitude of 5400 m and after a 10 day sojourn at 5400 m. At sea level, a normal breathing pattern was observed in all subjects throughout the night. At 3400 m the apnea-hypopnea index was 40.3 ± 33.0 in males (central apneas 77.6%, central hypopneas 22.4%) and 2.4 ± 2.8 in females (central apneas 58.2%, central hypopneas 41.8%; P <0.01). During the first recording at 5400 m, the apnea-hypopnea index was 87.5 ± 35.7 in males (central apneas 60.0%, central hypopneas 40.0%) and 41.1 ± 44.0 in females (central apneas 73.2%, central hypopneas 26.8%; P <0.01), again with a higher frequency of central events in males as seen at lower altitude. Similar results were observed after 10 days. With increasing altitude, there was also a progressive reduction in respiratory cycle length during central apneas in males (26.9 ± 3.4 s at 3400 m and 22.6 ± 3.7 s at 5400 m). Females, who displayed a significant number of central apneas only at the highest reached altitude, were characterized by longer cycle length than males at similar altitude (30.1 ± 5.8 s at 5400 m). In conclusion, at high altitude, nocturnal periodic breathing affects males more than females. Females started to present a significant number of central sleep apneas only at the highest reached altitude. After 10 days at 5400 m gender differences in the apnea-hypopnea index similar to those observed after acute exposure were still observed, accompanied by differences in respiratory cycle length.

AB - High-altitude exposure is characterized by the appearance of periodic breathing during sleep. Only limited evidence is available, however, on the presence of gender-related differences in this breathing pattern. In 37 healthy subjects, 23 male and 14 female, we performed nocturnal cardio-respiratory monitoring in the following conditions: (1) sea level; (2) first/second night at an altitude of 3400 m; (3) first/second night at an altitude of 5400 m and after a 10 day sojourn at 5400 m. At sea level, a normal breathing pattern was observed in all subjects throughout the night. At 3400 m the apnea-hypopnea index was 40.3 ± 33.0 in males (central apneas 77.6%, central hypopneas 22.4%) and 2.4 ± 2.8 in females (central apneas 58.2%, central hypopneas 41.8%; P <0.01). During the first recording at 5400 m, the apnea-hypopnea index was 87.5 ± 35.7 in males (central apneas 60.0%, central hypopneas 40.0%) and 41.1 ± 44.0 in females (central apneas 73.2%, central hypopneas 26.8%; P <0.01), again with a higher frequency of central events in males as seen at lower altitude. Similar results were observed after 10 days. With increasing altitude, there was also a progressive reduction in respiratory cycle length during central apneas in males (26.9 ± 3.4 s at 3400 m and 22.6 ± 3.7 s at 5400 m). Females, who displayed a significant number of central apneas only at the highest reached altitude, were characterized by longer cycle length than males at similar altitude (30.1 ± 5.8 s at 5400 m). In conclusion, at high altitude, nocturnal periodic breathing affects males more than females. Females started to present a significant number of central sleep apneas only at the highest reached altitude. After 10 days at 5400 m gender differences in the apnea-hypopnea index similar to those observed after acute exposure were still observed, accompanied by differences in respiratory cycle length.

KW - Gender

KW - High-altitude hypoxia

KW - Sleep-disordered breathing

KW - Sleep-related periodic breathing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84877822277&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84877822277&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/jsr.12012

DO - 10.1111/jsr.12012

M3 - Article

C2 - 23294420

AN - SCOPUS:84877822277

VL - 22

SP - 322

EP - 330

JO - Journal of Sleep Research

JF - Journal of Sleep Research

SN - 0962-1105

IS - 3

ER -