Investigation of the relationship between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and the risk of developing cancer in a prospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-naïve Patients Foundation Cohort is an Italian multicenter observational study recruiting HIVpositive patients while still antiretroviral treatment-naïve, regardless of the reason since 1997. Patients with at least 1 HDL-c value per year since enrollment and one such value before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included. HDL-c values were categorized as either low (<39mg/dL in males or <49mg/dL in females) or normal. Cancer diagnoses were classified as AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) or non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used. Among 4897 patients (13,440 person-years of follow-up [PYFU]), 104 diagnoses of cancer were observed (56 ADMs, 48 NADMs) for an overall incidence rate of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3-9.2) per 1000 PYFU. Low HDL-c values at enrollment were associated with higher risk both of cancer (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% CI 1.16-2.56, P=0.007) and of NADM (crude HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.35-4.76, P=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of cancer diagnosis was higher in patients with low HDL-c values (adjusted HR [AHR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.18-2.95, P=0.007) in older patients, those patients more recently enrolled, and in those with low current cluster of differentiation 4+ levels, and/or high current HIV-ribonucleic acid. The multivariate model confirmed an association between HDL-c (AHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.40-4.89, P=0.003) and risk of NADM. Low HDL-c is an independent predictor of cancer in HIV-1-infected subjects.
- AIDS-defining malignancies
- Non-AIDS-defining malignancies
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