High-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide are an effective conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in chemosensitive multiple myeloma

M. Cavo, G. Bandini, M. Benni, A. Gozzetti, S. Ronconi, G. Rosti, E. Zamagni, R. M. Lemoli, A. Bonini, A. Belardinelli, M. R. Motta, S. Rizzi, S. Tura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The present clinical trial was undertaken to investigate the toxicity and antimyeloma activity of busulfan (BU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) at the maximum tolerated doses of, respectively, 16 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg (BU-CY 4) as conditioning therapy for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in 19 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Twelve (63%) had failed to respond to prior chemotherapy, while the remaining 37% had chemosensitive disease. No life-threatening or fatal regimen-related complications were observed. The incidence of veno-occlusive disease of the liver was zero according to Jones' criteria and 21% according to McDonald's system. Transplant-related mortality was 37%. Using stringent criteria, the frequency of complete remission (CR) was 42% among all patients and 53% among those who could be evaluated. With a median follow-up of 21 months for all patients and 66 months for survivors, the actuarial probability of survival and event-free survival at 4 years from BMT was 26% (95% CI: 7-46) and 21% (95% CI: 3-39), respectively. A more favorable outcome of transplantation was observed in the subgroup of patients with chemosensitive disease who had a transplant-related mortality of 14%, an overall CR rate of 86% (95% CI: 49-97) and a 4-year projected probability of event-free survival of 57% (95% CI: 20-93). Four of these patients are currently alive in continuous CR after 54, 66, 80 and 94 months, respectively. It is concluded that BU-CY 4 as conditioning for allogeneic transplantation for MM is associated with acceptable morbidity and relatively low mortality. This regimen exerts substantial antimyeloma activity, resulting in a high CR rate and durable responses, especially in patients with chemosensitive disease. Long-lasting remission and probable cure is possible following allogeneic stem cell transplantation for MM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-32
Number of pages6
JournalBone Marrow Transplantation
Volume22
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1998

Keywords

  • Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
  • Busulfan
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Multiple myeloma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation

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