High frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation acutely increases β-endorphins in obese humans

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Abstract

Purpose: In obesity, metabolic and voluntary factors regulate appetite, and a dysregulation of the reward pathway was demonstrated in all addiction disorders. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is already used to modulate cerebral dopamine activation in neuro-psychiatric diseases. We presently assess the acute effect of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) dTMS on the modulation of the main neuropeptides and neurotransmitters involved in the reward pathway in obese subjects. Methods: This study was designed as a double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Thirty-three obese patients (9 males, 24 females, age 48.1 ± 10.6, BMI 36.4 ± 4.7) were enrolled in the study. All patients were studied during a single dTMS session and blood aliquots were drawn before and after a single dTMS session. Metabolic and neuro-endocrine parameters were evaluated before and after: (1) 18 Hz dTMS (HF, 13 patients); (2) 1 Hz dTMS (LF, 10 patients); (3) Sham treatment (Sham, 10 patients). Results: No statistically significant variations in metabolic parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were shown acutely. HF showed a significant increase of β-endorphin compared to other groups (p = 0.048); a significant increase of ghrelin in LF (p = 0.041) was also demonstrated. Conclusions: A single session of HF dTMS treatment determines in obese subjects an acute increase of β-endorphin level, indicating an activation of the reward pathway. The present findings constitute proof of principle for a potential application of this methodology in obesity treatment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEndocrine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Endorphins
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Reward
Obesity
Blood Pressure
Ghrelin
Appetite
Neuropeptides
Neurotransmitter Agents
Psychiatry
Dopamine
Randomized Controlled Trials
Heart Rate
Placebos
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Food craving
  • Ghrelin
  • Obesity
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • β-endorphin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

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title = "High frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation acutely increases β-endorphins in obese humans",
abstract = "Purpose: In obesity, metabolic and voluntary factors regulate appetite, and a dysregulation of the reward pathway was demonstrated in all addiction disorders. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is already used to modulate cerebral dopamine activation in neuro-psychiatric diseases. We presently assess the acute effect of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) dTMS on the modulation of the main neuropeptides and neurotransmitters involved in the reward pathway in obese subjects. Methods: This study was designed as a double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Thirty-three obese patients (9 males, 24 females, age 48.1 ± 10.6, BMI 36.4 ± 4.7) were enrolled in the study. All patients were studied during a single dTMS session and blood aliquots were drawn before and after a single dTMS session. Metabolic and neuro-endocrine parameters were evaluated before and after: (1) 18 Hz dTMS (HF, 13 patients); (2) 1 Hz dTMS (LF, 10 patients); (3) Sham treatment (Sham, 10 patients). Results: No statistically significant variations in metabolic parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were shown acutely. HF showed a significant increase of β-endorphin compared to other groups (p = 0.048); a significant increase of ghrelin in LF (p = 0.041) was also demonstrated. Conclusions: A single session of HF dTMS treatment determines in obese subjects an acute increase of β-endorphin level, indicating an activation of the reward pathway. The present findings constitute proof of principle for a potential application of this methodology in obesity treatment.",
keywords = "Food craving, Ghrelin, Obesity, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, β-endorphin",
author = "Anna Ferrulli and Concetta Macr{\`i} and Ileana Terruzzi and Federico Ambrogi and Valentina Milani and Michela Adamo and Livio Luzi",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s12020-018-1791-1",
language = "English",
journal = "Endocrine",
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T1 - High frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation acutely increases β-endorphins in obese humans

AU - Ferrulli, Anna

AU - Macrì, Concetta

AU - Terruzzi, Ileana

AU - Ambrogi, Federico

AU - Milani, Valentina

AU - Adamo, Michela

AU - Luzi, Livio

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Purpose: In obesity, metabolic and voluntary factors regulate appetite, and a dysregulation of the reward pathway was demonstrated in all addiction disorders. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is already used to modulate cerebral dopamine activation in neuro-psychiatric diseases. We presently assess the acute effect of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) dTMS on the modulation of the main neuropeptides and neurotransmitters involved in the reward pathway in obese subjects. Methods: This study was designed as a double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Thirty-three obese patients (9 males, 24 females, age 48.1 ± 10.6, BMI 36.4 ± 4.7) were enrolled in the study. All patients were studied during a single dTMS session and blood aliquots were drawn before and after a single dTMS session. Metabolic and neuro-endocrine parameters were evaluated before and after: (1) 18 Hz dTMS (HF, 13 patients); (2) 1 Hz dTMS (LF, 10 patients); (3) Sham treatment (Sham, 10 patients). Results: No statistically significant variations in metabolic parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were shown acutely. HF showed a significant increase of β-endorphin compared to other groups (p = 0.048); a significant increase of ghrelin in LF (p = 0.041) was also demonstrated. Conclusions: A single session of HF dTMS treatment determines in obese subjects an acute increase of β-endorphin level, indicating an activation of the reward pathway. The present findings constitute proof of principle for a potential application of this methodology in obesity treatment.

AB - Purpose: In obesity, metabolic and voluntary factors regulate appetite, and a dysregulation of the reward pathway was demonstrated in all addiction disorders. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is already used to modulate cerebral dopamine activation in neuro-psychiatric diseases. We presently assess the acute effect of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) dTMS on the modulation of the main neuropeptides and neurotransmitters involved in the reward pathway in obese subjects. Methods: This study was designed as a double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Thirty-three obese patients (9 males, 24 females, age 48.1 ± 10.6, BMI 36.4 ± 4.7) were enrolled in the study. All patients were studied during a single dTMS session and blood aliquots were drawn before and after a single dTMS session. Metabolic and neuro-endocrine parameters were evaluated before and after: (1) 18 Hz dTMS (HF, 13 patients); (2) 1 Hz dTMS (LF, 10 patients); (3) Sham treatment (Sham, 10 patients). Results: No statistically significant variations in metabolic parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were shown acutely. HF showed a significant increase of β-endorphin compared to other groups (p = 0.048); a significant increase of ghrelin in LF (p = 0.041) was also demonstrated. Conclusions: A single session of HF dTMS treatment determines in obese subjects an acute increase of β-endorphin level, indicating an activation of the reward pathway. The present findings constitute proof of principle for a potential application of this methodology in obesity treatment.

KW - Food craving

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KW - Obesity

KW - Transcranial magnetic stimulation

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